Robert Lindsay, why do pure Ainu have lighter skinned than Japanese? Are Ainu Northern Australoids (cold adapted Australoids?) or are they pigmented? I’ve seen pigmented Tamils and Veddas that look almost European; even the Australian aborigines would.
Look at this map of glacier cover in Japan at the height of the last glaciation about 20,000 years ago.
It shows the Hokkaido (Ainu land) living in a climate different from every other Asian countries.
The Ainu are indeed cold adapted Australoids, and they are actually Vedda types. A comparison of Veddoids and Ainu will show that they match perfectly.
The map of Ainu land is not correct. 20,000 YBP there were no Ainu in Japan. The ancestors of the Ainu are the Jomon. Jomonese skulls line up perfectly with skulls from Thailand 16,000 YBP. The Jomonese show up in Japan 13,000 YBP. So the Jomon left Thailand sometime between 16,000 and 13,000 YBP and made their way eventually up to Japan. When they first arrived in Japan, the Jomonese ranged over the entire country. They were not in Hokkaido alone.
They only ended up in Hokkaido when the Yayoi came from Korea to Japan 2,300 YBP and slowly conquered their way up the island, defeating and displacing the Ainu along the way. The Ainu were eventually pushed up to Hokkaido where the Japanese no longer pursued them much. Hokkaido is where they were found when modern anthropology discovered them in the modern area, but they have not always been located only there.
The map below is the best map available at the moment, but it probably has some problems.
Much information on the attacks is confusing, conflicting, convoluted or simply not true. The following was the best I was able to sort out of the mess at the moment. We don’t even know for sure how many attack locations there were. Nevertheless, this list is probably one of the best and most complete descriptions of all of the attacks that you can find anywhere on the Net at the moment. Totals: 127 killed, over 200 wounded, many seriously.
Four attackers attacked Bataclan Theater near the Charlie Hebdo offices with gunfire and bombs shouting, “This is for Syria!”, many hostages taken and killed, band and 100 others escaped, 87 killed including four police officers and all four attackers.
Two gunmen with AK-47’s and grenades attacked a restaurant and a cafe/bar – Le Petit Cambodge, a Cambodian restaurant and Le Carrillon, a cafe/bar – at the Rue Bichot and Rue Alibert intersection, 11 killed and 20 wounded.
Two suicide bombers blew themselves up outside a MacDonald’s Restaurant across the street from the Stade de France Stadium and at two entrances of the stadium, Saint Denis. In addition, there was a bombing not involving a suicide attacker. Five killed, Five wounded.
Drive-by shooting outside Le Belle Epipue, a Japanese restaurant at Rue de Charonne and Rue Faidherbe, 18 killed.
Two gunmen with automatic weapons attacked the patio outside La Cosa Nostra pizza restaurant at Rue de la Fontaine, Five killed.
Suicide bomber blew himself up on Boulevard Voltaire near the Bataclan Theater, one killed (the bomber).
Calais, France (Possible revenge attack) – Refugee asylum seekers camp set on fire. Possibly a revenge attack by anti-Islam French nationalists.
Rumors of attacks at the Les Halles Shopping Center and the Pompidou Center are unfounded.
You folks were not able to answer all nine of them correctly, so I will give you the answers.
Pink – Catalan
Light green – Aranese or Occitan (no one got this one)
Purple – Aragonese (no one got this one)
Aquamarine – Basque
Red – Castillian
Green – Asturian-Leonese
Yellow – Galician
Dark green – Extremaduran (no one got this one)
Brown – Fala (no one got this one)
Aranese is the Aranese dialect of Occitan which is either a separate language or a dialect of Occitan depending on how you look at it. Fala is actually a dialect of Galician but it is considered a language for sociopolitical reasons. There is another part of the dark green Extremaduran language which is typically not recognized. This is Cantabrian, spoken to the east of the green Asturian-Leonese area and to the west of the aquamarine Basque area.
This is an interesting map, though on first thought it seems unnecessary.
First of all, it makes quite clear how Brazil stands out as the Portuguese speaking state in Latin America. One could argue that this makes them odd man out, but if we look in terms of population, Latin America has a population of 570 million. 192 million of those are Brazilians. So 34%, or fully 1/3, of Latin Americans speak Portuguese. So what at first looks like Brazil’s linguistic isolation may not be so isolating as it appears.
All the Spanish-speaking countries can communicate well with each other, and there is a “neutral Spanish” that any educated person can use when conversing with any other educated person from Hispanophone Latin America. As long as you are doing this, you will both be understood.
Getting down to regional dialects, things do get complicated. I understand that Chilean soap operas, spoken in the rich dialect of the Chilean street, are dubbed in the rest of South America because other South Americans can’t understand Chilean street Spanish. But they are probably well understood in Argentina. There does seem to be a “Southern Cone Street Spanish” that is harder to pick up as the latitudes move northward.
Bolivian Spanish sounds strange, but it’s probably intelligible in South America. It heavily inflected with Indian languages.
There is a general Caribbean Spanish that can be hard to understand.
The language of the Colombian Caribbean coast can be hard for even other Colombians to understand.
Dominican Spanish is notorious for being hard to understand. First of all, it seems to be based on Canarian Spanish of the Canary Islands, which is a very strange form of Spanish. Into this base went a ton of African words, much more than in the rest of Latin America. Further, it is spoken very fast. Dominican Spanish is pretty baffling to other Spanish speakers, at least for a while. Nevertheless, there is a more neutral form of Dominican Spanish that is widely intelligible to other Hispanophones.
On the streets of Mexico City, a very hardcore slang has emerged, sort of a Mexico City Street Spanish, that is pretty hard to figure out outside of Mexico.
Latin America is interesting in that the rest of the world seems to be learning “English as the universal language,” while Latin America is lagging behind.
I know quite a few educated Latin Americans who barely speak a lick of English. Latin Americans live not so much in the society of the Western Hemisphere, but more particularly in the society of Latin America. And Latin America is extremely Hispanophone. Everywhere you go, most everyone speaks Spanish. Spanish is a very highly developed modern language with words for everything. Why bother to learn English? What for? To talk to gringos?
However, at advanced university levels, such as Master’s Degree and particularly doctorate level, increasingly there are requirements to learn English.
One would think that Mexicans at least would be required to take some English in school, right? Forget it. First of all, Mexican schools are crap, and they are broke. The elite and upper middle class steal all the money in the country, and the Libertarian/Republican dream minimal state/free market economy hosts horribly defunded and decrepit schools. It’s not uncommon to meet 20 year old Mexicans who dropped out in the 2nd grade.
English is typically not offered in Mexican public schools. It’s only offered in private schools, which is of course where the moneyed class above sends their kids, which is why they won’t pay for public schools (They don’t use ’em), which is why the public schools are crap. I’m sure many more non-Hispanic Americans in the US are taking Spanish than Latin Americans are studying English.
Hispanophones also often do not bother to learn Portuguese. Some of the educated ones claim they can understand it without studying it, but I doubt it.
A lot of Brazilians say they can understand Spanish pretty well (I think they study Spanish more than Hispanophone Latins study Portuguese), but when you start talking to them in Spanish (which I do on a regular basis) it doesn’t seem to work very well. Want to talk to a Brazilian? Learn Portuguese!
As we can see on the map, both French Guyana and Haiti speak French.
I was talking about Haiti with my liberal Democrat Mom once. The general conversation was along the lines that Haiti was all screwed up. She said, “Well, they’re all Black, they’re dirt poor, and worst of all, they’re in the Western Hemisphere, but they all speak French!” Indeed. What do these funny Frencophones think they’re doing in our Anglophone, Hispanophone and Lusophone Hemisphere anyway?
Further, the language of Haiti is not really intelligible to French speakers. It makes about as much sense as hardcore Jamaican English does to us. However, the Haitian elite often speaks good French. They also say they understand Spanish, but I’ve tried to talk to them in Spanish, and it didn’t go anywhere. Often they don’t understand much English either. Want to talk a member of the Haitian upper class? Learn French!
So the Haitians are rather isolated in this Hemisphere, but I’m not sure if your average dirt poor Haitian cares. I suppose they could always talk to the Quebecois, but no one understands Quebecois either.
French Guyana is also a French speaking country. It’s still a colony, and it has a very nice standard of living. Nowadays, colonies don’t even want to go free anymore, as it means a standard of living crash.
As you can see, British Honduras speaks English. There are some other English speaking islands in the Caribbean and some French speaking islands too, but none are marked on the map.
Dutch has pretty much died out in the Western Hemisphere, but it used to be spoken widely in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean.
The main language of Guyana is probably some English creole, but it’s not shown on the map.
Indian languages are still very widely spoken in Peru (Quechua), Bolivia (Aymara) and Paraguay (Guarani).
Pretty darned hilarious! The Tories are the conservative party in the UK, more or less aligned with the Upper Classes and their views and prejudices. In particular, as this map indicates, they are characterized by some pretty blatant racism and a creepy fondness for the British Empire. They also have a Nordicist bent in that they don’t like Southern Europeans too much.
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Here are a couple of excellent maps showing, first, the tropics, and second, skin color around the world.
It’s curious to me that dark skin is devalued. I grew up on the beach in Southern California. In the summer I lived at the beach and surfed. While I wasn’t surfing, I was living in a cloud of marijuana smoke. In the winter, I lived at the ski slopes, once again in a marijuana fog. All year, I chased women, listened to hard rock music and sold pot. Life has never been better.
I had bleached long hair and a year-round tan. This was the idea. Surfer and skier society was White society, but it was not racist. There simply were few if any non-Whites in the scene. But those non-Whites that were in scene were completely accepted as normal, see Bobby Nishi, once of the greatest surfers of all time. I once threw a party in my house and at one point I caught Bobby in my brother’s bedroom screwing some chick. No one cared, and everyone thought it was funny. Women swarmed to Bobby like bees to blossoms.
Thing was, we were always trying to be brown. How brown? I’m not sure if it ever came up. Obviously, White people can only get so brown, but our mestizo and NE Asian friends did get a lot browner with the sun, but no one seemed to care. None of us Whites got as dark as Black people, but if we could have, it might even have been cool, who knows? Whether we were as brown as mestizos is hard to say. We were certainly as brown as a lot of the lighter mestizos.
The fascinating thing was that growing up on the beach, we thought that pale, White skinned White girls were ugly! Everyone wanted a bitchin’ tan. The pale skinned White thing came back with the punk rock thing in the late 70’s and early 80’s, but at the time, it was bad news.
This makes me wonder about this White nationalist thing that everywhere on Earth, humans and males in particular have a preference for lighter skin, which is of course superior, right? Except that my So Cal White culture was an exception to all of that. Therefore, what? My culture was a genetic aberration? Come on. I’ll side with the Cultural Left assholes here and say that this whole light skin preference thing is socially constructed. It’s not some inborn bias or instinct.
In Africa, males have no preference for lighter skin in females, and female Africans do vary quite a bit in skin color. In Tasmania, Tasmanians actually preferred darker skin in women! I suppose they had a special genetic mutation, huh?
There does seem to be evidence that men prefer females to be lighter through all cultures, but there women have no preference at all for men. Tall, dark and handsome isn’t exactly a reference to the melanin-deficient White dude. As commenter tulio notes, this is probably a preference for youth, since our skin is lighter as babies and children and grows darker as we age, except in guys like me, where my dark brown hair is paradoxically turning light grey as I age. But go figure!
Here we have two maps, one for what I am going to call blond hair, though they are calling it light hair here. The other is for what I call blue eyes, but they are calling them light eyes here.
These are of course the Aryan Prize Jewels. What is funny is that the centers of Blondness and Blueness seem to be in some cases outside of the Land of Odin and Thor.
For instance, the lower half of Finland, plus central Sweden and Norway, are Ground Zero for blonds. You can hardly spit in any direction around there without hitting a wolverine, a caribou, or some blond and blue hottie. If it wasn’t too cold to fuck, the place would be a sexual paradise!
What is interesting about this is that the your true Nazis always held that the Finns are “Asiatics,” and therefore not really White. What’s wrong with almond eyes and submissive, slender women, I’ll never know, but the Mighty Whiteys think this Chinky stuff is no good. Better a strong German woman who looks like she could shot put you across the room I guess. Sometimes Nazis are hard to figure.
Anyway, we see that Russia, in particular far northwestern Russia, is also a Hot Zone for major breakouts of blond and blue, especially for the blue eyes.
In fact, the center for azure isises seems to be around Estonia or a bit east of there in the Ingrian region, a bit south and further east than the Almogordo of the blonds, noted above as central Scandinavia. Once again, the Nazi types insist that these centers of Aryanism are fatally contaminated with them dirty Asiatic genes.
I would say that these are markers of mutations. One, for blond hair, in central Scandinavia, around 9,000 years ago, and the other, for blue eyes, in Estonia around the same time.
Why they persisted is a mystery, as they add little Darwinian fitness. I assume that the blond and blue chicks were in hot demand by the fur-draped fellows up there. They all jumped on the blond and blue chicks, and the early Neolithic Marilyn Monroe types pumped out lots of babies. What’s surprising is that these evil bitches stealing all the good men were not all killed by their proto-Viking sisters.
Anyway, since gentlemen prefer blonds, the mutation spread, and nowadays we even have blond and blue Jews, though most of those come from bottles and contact lenses.
The maps are interesting. The general Scandinavian – Baltic region seems to be an epicenter, with the Finnic region predominating. Taking the median of the blond epicenter in central Sweden with the blue eyed epicenter around Novgorod in Russia just east of Estonia (Ingria), we get a blond-blue epicenter around Tampere, Finland in southern Finland about 150 miles north of Helsinki. Northwestern Russia has a lot of Finnic and general Scandinavian genes. After all, the St. Petersburg region and environs was ruled by Swedes for centuries.
We have a strange strip of blond along the forbidding Pomeranian coast of Poland, near the V-2 rocket test site. The outbreak of blonds in the Galicia region of Spain is interesting. These folks say they are Celts, and perhaps they are. Moving to France, we see another outbreak in Brittany, once again attributable to Celtic Bretons. In the UK, blondism trends to the East, but this was where the Danish influence and the Danelaw was greatest.
Heading down to Italy, we see that the Venetian speaking region in far northeast Italy is a blond outlier, not the general “Padania” of the northern separatists. Since this region was long under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, perhaps the answer can be found there. There is another blond outlier on the heel of the Italian boot in the Puglia-Salento region that is also unexplained. There are a lot of Greek and Albanian genes in this region, but how do we get blondism from that?
The blue eyed map also shows some interesting things. In Spain, there is an area of very dark eyes, but it is a little to the east of the Moorish area. There is an area of somewhat lighter eyes in North Africa on the border of Algeria and Morocco that is unexplained. A commenter says it was from Vandals. That region is in the area of the Middle Atlas Mountains and much of the Rif Range. There are a lot of the more pure Berbers in area – Riffians in the Rif and Chleuh in the Middle Atlas.
The Riffians in particular are very light – 36.8% of them have blond hair and blue or green eyes, higher than the % of light hair among Spaniards and Italians. Riffians have a moderate amount of Alpine and Nordic features for a Mediterranean race. Considering that Riffians are lighter than Spaniards or Italians, it seems insane that White Nationalists say that they are “non-Whites.” The Chleuh are also quite light, see pics.
Czechs have lighter eyes than Slovaks, and Turks have lighter eyes than most Italians, perhaps due to heavy Slav influence. The far south of Switzerland has darker eyes and hair than the Swiss to the north of them. This is the Italian, Lombard and Romansch speaking region of Switzerland.
Here, a fascinating series of maps.
Your assignment, just to piss PC Idiots off, is to analyze the maps in terms of demographics and race.
Greed is highest on the East Coast, in California, in Washington State and Oregon, in Arizona, in Texas and around Chicago, in lower Michigan, in Florida and in the Rust Belt. These are all places where there are concentrations of wealth. The measure was based on “Average income compared with number of people living below the poverty line.” What this means is that this is where extremes of wealth and poverty exist.
They exist in Arizona, California and Florida because of mass Hispanic immigration. Hispanics can probably only create societies with extremes of wealth and poverty, and the Hispanic elite which has settled in Florida has created the most outrageous and reactionary mirror of a Latin American banana republic shithole you could imagine. Why? Because that’s what they do. That’s what they create in Latin America, so that’s what they are going to create when you import them to the US.
In California and Arizona, there are still a lot of rich people, mostly rich White people. This has recently been combined with the insanity of importing millions of Mesoamerican urban poor and peasants with an average 5th grade education. Predictably, they have created mass poverty and slums wherever they have settled. Combine this with the rich Whites you get greed on the map.
I have no explanations for the high greed coefficients around Chicago, lower Michigan and the Rust Belt, but there is a lot of Black poverty and there are a lot of wrecked cities in this region. I can’t understand the high readings on the liberal White East Coast or in Washington State/Oregon either. Interestingly, the South, including the Black Belt, scores low on greed. Maybe there is not much money to go around?
The next map is Envy, or the Ripoff Map. It’s a map of theft. Predictably, it’s high in Arizona, central California and Washington State. Extremes of inequality cause tons of crime, especially theft, but you can never get a conservative to admit this basic fact of human nature.
The South, including the Black Belt, has tons of theft. Presumably, Blacks are doing a lot of this stealing, but I am curious to what extent Southern Whites are thieves too. I have always heard that Southern Whites also have a high crime rate. In that respect, Southern crime may be more of a regionalism than a race thing per se.
Also lots of ripoff in lower Michigan and Rust Belt. We do have lots of Blacks there, lots of wrecked cities and abandoned industry, along with extremes of wealth and poverty. That sounds like a recipe for Ripoff Central. Also quite a bit of ripoff in eastern Oklahoma and NE Texas, which I cannot explain.
The Wrath Map, or violent crime map, is most interesting. Once again, high rates in Central California which are not explainable. Arizona has lots of violent crime, possibly due to Hispanics. So does New Mexico, and I cannot explain that.
So does Southern Missouri, East Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, Tennessee, Louisiana, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina and Southern North Carolina. Yet Mississippi has little and Alabama has much less than the rest. One is tempted to say “Black Belt”, except that I have always heard that those wonderful Southern White folks have always had a very high violent crime rate. In particular a high homicide rate. And it’s been that way for 200 years or so. I chalk it up to culture.
Southern Michigan has some violent crime, but the Rust Belt does not. Go figure? There’s also quite a bit of violent crime being committed those White redneck mountain men in far Western Montana. Huh? So much on these maps hardly makes sense.
Next up we have Sloth, and this map doesn’t tell us much except that Americans are not particularly sloth-like, nor are they all that workaholic. In the Yellowstone region, we find the laziest folks of all, what with all that elk hunting and flyfishing in the rivers. That includes Western Montana, where the homicidal herds of Whites roam. I guess when they are not shooting each other, they are practicing on elk and deer?
The Gluttony map tells us little except that Texas is full of fatties, steer-shaped guys and gals wearing outsized beltbuckles and deep fat-frying anything no longer moving. Appalachia is full of unhealthy eaters and so is the Washington DC area, except for Michelle’s organic garden I guess.
Now for my favorite subject: Lust! This is a VD map, unfortunately, not a Get Laid Map. One would think that wherever you have lots of queers you have tons of VD, but it doesn’t show on the map.
Instead we get the South. And indeed, it does look something like the Black Belt. I know Blacks like to screw a lot, but how about Southern Whites? Are they all prim and proper, going to Church every Sunday and Bible Study during the week? One wonders.
There are some strange anomalies on there – the Black Hills, NE Arizona, until one realizes that these are Indian reservations. Indians like to screw a lot? I never knew. I thought Indian maidens were all shy and reserved and proper. We also have tons of uncontrollable sex maniacs in East Central New Mexico and across the border in West Texas (Bible Belt). I don’t understand this one at all. Once again, we have lots of evil, this time Sex Evil, in NE Texas, which I don’t understand. Lot of Black folks there? Lot of screwing in southern Michigan, once again a lot of Blacks.
Thaaat’s all, folks!
Eupedia.com was founded in December 2004.Our aim is to create a detailed and informative guide for countries of the European Union for travellers, expats and locals alike, with an emphasis on sightseeing, history, culture, economy, and life in Europe.
I figure that this page tells us something about the origins of the Caucasians, not to mention the origins of the Europeans. One thing that is incontrovertibly clear is that the Caucasian Race did not arise in Europe. Instead, it appears to have arisen in Southern Iran, the Caucasus and the Middle East, as I have speculated. So the Grandaddy of all the great European White Men was some towelheaded wog. Figures. Choke on that, White nationalists.
Going back even further, the Caucasians appear to have origins in Haplogroup N, which, a commenter on this blog has noted, seems to originate in Eastern Africa, especially around the area of the Masai in Kenya. This is also as I suspected, as I assume that the proto-Caucasians may have roots in the Masai, the Tutsi, the Southern Sudanese and other Desert Adopted Elongated African types. The Tutsi even have an uncanny, almost Caucasian appearance about them, despite their African purity (no Caucasian blood).
It also looks like any European clades go back no further than 13,000 years in Europe, and even at that time, I am told that Europeans looked more like Arabs than present day Aryan Supermen. This means that the vaunted White Race, like most exact races on Earth, is a relatively new creation, the latest model, as it were. Attempts to link present day Europeans to Paleolithic Europeans would appear to be absurd on their face.
If anyone other than White nationalist boneheads can make more sense of that page than this, go to it. It’s looks kind of mind-boggling from here.
The Indo-European languages include most of the languages of Europe, Iran and Northern India. For instance, English, Gaelic, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian, Russian, Greek, Albanian, Armenian and Kurdish are some of the better-known IE languages of Europe and the Near East.
In Iran, the major language, Farsi, is IE, as is the major language Pashto in Afghanistan. In India and Pakistan, the huge languages Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi are all IE.
They go back to a proto-language called Proto Indo-European, or PIE. In that the languages are all related, the truth is that the peoples are all related to for the greatest part. So Northern Indians, Pashtuns, Iranians, Kurds and Armenians are all closely related to Europeans since they all sprung in part from a common source, in the famous words of Sir William Jones, who discovered the IE languages in the late 1700’s.
Going back 6,500 years, we can reconstruct Proto-Indo-European quite well. One of the best resources is Julius Pokorny‘s Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (or Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch).
Originally written in German, this incredible 2,500 page masterwork has been translated largely, but not completely, into English. One of my favorite pastimes is wading through this monster. I have a downloadable copy on the blog here (huge file).
The homeland of the Indo-Europeans is the subject of much debate, but the modern consensus centers around putting the homeland at 6500 years before present (YBP) around Southern Russia. I have narrowed it to southern Russia, southeastern Ukraine and southwestern Kazakhstan north of the Caucasus. This is more or less the region in between the Black and Caspian Seas.
An arid region called the Kuma-Manych Depression is in the middle of this region and seems to be a major center of PIE culture. I could not find a map of the Depression, but it separates the North Caucasus from the Russian Plain.
There were also settlements in southeastern Ukraine near the Sea of Azov, about 50 miles north of the Caspian Sea in southwestern Kazakhstan and up around the Lower Volga Region near Samara. A good word for this general region is the Pontic-Caspian Steppe.
From there, it’s not really known how or when the Proto-Indo-Europeans spread out, but they show up in Europe some time later. A good map of their migrations or conquests is here. The PIE people had several advantages over their neighbors. They were already into the Bronze Age for one, and not only that, but there were horses running around Southern Russia. The PIE had managed to domesticate the horse. That’s quite an advantage, but the PIE people did one better.
They even invented a wheel. Then they logically put the two together and made horse-drawn chariots. With these chariots, the PIE people apparently conquered much of Europe and later parts of Southwest Asia and South Asia.
The people in Europe at this time were pre-PIE folks. We know little about their culture, but the master of PIE culture, the celebrated professor Marija Gimbutas (A woman!) calls it “Old Europe.” Old Europe is very little known or understood. A probable surviving language from Old Europe is Basque. Another, long extinct, is Etruscan.
The very early people of the British Isles, whose descendants are now known as the Black Irish, populated the Isles between 9000-11000 YBP. They had dark hair, dark eyes and very pale skin. Genetically, they seem to resemble the Basques and may have come on boats from Spain.
The Basques themselves and related peoples may have come from the Caucasus long, long ago. Although Basque is said to have no living relatives, I believe it is related to Caucasian languages like Chechen and Ingush. Throughout Europe one finds folks called Black this and Black that.
I had a girlfriend who called herself a Black Swede and later on, a girlfriend named Linda of Polish heritage. Both had very dark, curly hair, dark eyes and very pale skin. As a guess, these types of Europeans may be the remains of Old Europe.
Gimbutas is also the founder of the Kurgan Hypothesis, which is currently the best PIE theory out there. Gimbutas (photo) sort of lost it towards the end when she got into “Goddess worship” and whatnot, but it’s clear that this Lithuanian archeologist was one of the great scholars of our time.
Some time after 6500 YBP, PIE began to break up, but no one knows quite how this occurred. At any rate, by 4200 YBP, a split had occurred in PIE and a separate language had broken off, Indo-Iranian. There are maps out there of the Indo-Iranian homeland, but I don’t like them all that much so I made my own. My best guess was to place it in the far north of Kazakhstan and just over the border into Russia.
From there, after 3500 YBP, the Indo-Aryans moved out and migrated into Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India and Iran. Many people in these regions today speak Indo-Iranian languages descended from these people. These folks are thought to be the source of the famous Aryan Invasion of India at around this time.
As I noted, the process whereby these languages split off, other than the Indo-Aryan split, is little known. However, assuming this tree diagram is correct, maybe it can shed some light on the matter.
Unfortunately, this chart is hard to read, so I will try to decipher it. The first thing to note is the Anatolian split in the tree, apparently the first split. There are problems with the date for PIE. A glottochronological study recently gave a date of about 8500 YBP for PIE, considerably earlier than the usual date of around 6500 YBP.
Promoters of something called the Anatolian Hypothesis have used this to suggest than an earlier language called Proto-Indo-Hittite was spoken in Anatolia 8500 years ago.
The Anatolian languages split off, and the PIE speakers moved to the Pontic Steppe. The movement of Proto-Indo-Hittite speakers out of Anatolia to the Pontic Steppe to form the PIE people may be related to the Black Sea Deluge Theory which has recently been proven correct.
The Black Sea expanded dramatically according to this theory as, around 7600 YBP, a waterfall 200 times the size of Niagara Falls (!) poured through the Bosporus Straits, transforming the pre-Black Sea freshwater lake into the present-day brackish (part-salt water, part-fresh water) Black Sea. Soon after this event, PIE culture appears in the Pontic Steppe.
This is a very controversial proposal called the Indo-Hittite Theory, but I have long supported it. The late Joseph Greenberg, one of the greatest historical linguists that ever lived, also supported it.
This theory holds that Indo-European has two branches, Indo-European proper and the Hittite branch. The Hittite branch is related to the other branch only in a binary fashion. There is good evidence for this.
The Anatolian languages, all of which are now extinct, are very strange and seem distant from the rest. The appear archaic and have retained many forms which seem to not be present on the rest of IE. My guess is these are archaic forms.
Anatolian lacks grammatical gender – masculine:feminine, an IE innovation spread through the family. Instead, it has an archaic noun class system called animate:inanimate. This is reminiscent of ancient Niger-Congo languages in Africa. In addition, the Anatolian vowel system is reduced (fewer vowels) and the case system is simpler.
Many basic IE vocabulary terms are simply missing in Anatolian. All of this debris tends to add up to the hypothesis of an ancient branch of the language family.
Tocharian is visible on the diagram as Italo-Celtic-Tocharian. This branch is extremely strange, since Tocharian was spoken way over in Asia near East Turkestan and Kyrgyzstan, and Celtic and Italic are spoken in the heart of Europe. This is the area where the mummies with blond hair and blue eyes have been found. Tocharian may have split as early as 6000 YBP.
The Tocharian language is also very ancient and strange and is only distantly related to the rest of IE. If anything, it seems to look somewhat like Anatolian.
A very ancient branch of IE also split off around this time. Known as Balkan or Paleo-Balkan, it may also have split off 6000 YBP. There were two major branches, Thracian and Illyro-Venetic. Thracian is extinct, and all that remains of Illyro-Venetic is Albanian, a very ancient IE tongue that is only distantly related to the rest of IE. Proto-Illyrian and Thracian split around 4200 YBP.
Here is a map of the Illyrian tribes before the Roman conquest. It is from this milieu that the Albanians emerged. The Albanian language is quite strange within IE and seems to have very ancient roots dating back to Proto-Paleo-Balkan from 6000 YBP.
Another very early split you can see in the chart is something called Indo-Irano-Armeno-Hellenic. The Armeno-Hellenic branch probably split off 6000 YBP. The fact that Armenians and Greeks today still possibly retain a PIE appearance is also suggested by this early split. Only the Greek languages and Armenian remain of this family, as most of the family is extinct. Proto-Hellenic may have split off around 5000 YBP, and Proto-Armenian may have split around 4500 YBP. The proto-Hellenics seem to have been related to the Indo-Iranians. This may be why a number of North Indians look like Greeks, Turks or Armenians.
Armenian and Hellenic are also strange IE branches that are only distantly related to the rest of IE.
The Italo-Celtic branch broke off as early as 5000 YBP. Proto-Celtic split about 2800 YBP; the homeland is in Northern Austria. The Hallstatt Culture is associated with them. The Proto-Italics are dated to around 3500 YBP in Italy. Before that, the Italo-Celtic Homeland is thought to have been in southern and central Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
The fact that Italics (Italians and related languages) and Celts share common roots shows how insane and stupid Nordicism is, as Nordicists say that Italians south of the Po are ‘non-Whites.’ It turns out that those greasy dagos and those blond and blue guys in dresses blowing pipes in the Highlands are the same folks after all, as they share common genetic roots in Austria 3500 YBP.
Proto-Germanic also dates far back, with pre-Proto-Germanic possibly being spoken 3800 YBP in northern Germany, Denmark and Southern Scandinavia ( map). The homeland of the pre-proto-Germanics is in Southern Sweden and Jutland. They may have settled this area as early as 5000 YBP. These speakers may have been speaking something called Balto-Slavo-Germanic, a group you can see on the tree above.
Proto-Germanic proper probably dates from the Jasdorf Culture. The homeland of the proto-Germanics was in northern Germany, around Schleswig-Holstein south into the Lower Elbe region in what is now Saxony-Anhalt and the Hanover area.
It also extended along the Baltic coast of Germany to about the Polish border, down into Brandenburg and Mecklenburg. The original center of the homeland was in Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.
Balto-Slavic is also a very ancient branch of IE. Lithuanian is an ancient IE language that is very conservative and has retained many ancient IE reflexes that have been lost in the rest of IE. Proto-Balto-Slavic probably split around 4000 YBP. Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic split apart about 3400 YBP. Map of the Balto-Slavic homeland. This homeland encompassed Western Ukraine, Belarus and Eastern Poland.
Proto-Slavic, dating from 3400 YBP, seems to have its homeland in Northern and Western Ukraine and in Southern Belarus.
The proto-Baltic homeland dating from the same time frame is about the southern border region of Belarus around the Pinsk Marshes.
The rest of the splits, of Slavic, Italic, Celtic, Indian, Iranian and Germanic into their branches, are pretty well-documented, and all occur within the past 1500-3000 years.
Let us move to some interesting dilemmas about the Indo-Europeans. One is the distribution of R1a associated with the Indo-Europeans.
The highest levels of this haplogroup are found in Eastern Europe in a narrow band from the Black Sea in the Ukraine through Poland to the Baltic Sea and in Northern India and areas to the northwest around the Hindu Kush and the Pamirs, but that does not mean that these two groups are particularly closely related. Northern Indians are most closely related to Iranians and relatively distantly to Eastern Europeans.
The truth is that this haplogroup is only a signature of a split from around the Aryan-Greco homeland in the Pontic Steppe region discussed above. This left high levels of R1a in Eastern Europe and in north India. High levels in North India are not particularly notable but exist only due to a founder effect. Actually, the highest levels are not found in North India but in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and north Afghanistan.
The high levels found in North India have led some to assume incorrectly that the homeland of the R1a people was in that area, but this is not the case.
R1b levels are highest in Spain and the Western British Isles. The launching point for the R1b seems to have been the Maykop Culture of 5500 YBP. From there, they spread all over Europe.
The Maykop Culture was an early PIE split that existed between the Taman Peninsula just east of the Crimea east to the Dagestan border in the area that includes part of Southern Russia east of the Crimea, Adygea, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Chechnya in the Caucasus.
The center of the culture was around Maykop in Adygea (Circassia). The region is now inhabited by peoples of the Caucasus and is heavily Muslim.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans belonged both R1a and R1b. Their homeland was in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, in what is known as the Kurgan culture (7000-2200 BCE).
The presence of R1b in modern times between the Black Sea and the Caucasus hints at the Maykop culture (3500-2500 BCE) as their most plausible homeland, while the Eurasian steppes to the north were R1a territory. […]
A comparison with the Indo-Iranian invasion of South Asia shows that 40% of the male lineages of northern India are R1a, but only 20% of the female lineages could be of Indo-European origin (H, J, K, T, U).
The impact of the Indo-Europeans was more severe in Europe because European society 4,000 years ago was less developed in terms of agriculture, technology (no bronze weapons) and population density than that of the Indus Valley civilization.
This is particularly true of the native Western European cultures where farming arrived much later than in the Balkans or central Europe. Greece was the most advanced of European societies and was the least affected in terms of haplogroup replacement.
Native European Y-DNA haplogroups (I1, I2a, I2b) also survived better in regions that were more difficult to reach or less hospitable, like Scandinavia, Brittany, Sardinia or the Dinaric Alps[…]
The eastern branch of the R1a steppe people was the Andronovo culture (2300-1000 BCE), around modern Kazakhstan, which correspond to the Indo-Iranian branch of languages. Their migration to the south have resulted in high R1a frequencies in southern Central Asia, Iran and the Indian subcontinent.
The highest frequency of R1a (about 65%) is reached in a cluster around Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. In India, 15 to 45% of the population is R1a, depending on the region and caste. Over 70% of the Brahmins (highest caste in Hinduism) belong to R1a1, due to a founder effect.
Pokorny, Julius. 1959, 2007. Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary. A Revised Edition of Julius Pokorny’s Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Published on the Internet: Indo-European Language Revival Association.
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This is a very interesting map. In case you can’t read it very well, a better copy is here. I had no idea that the Romans conquered so far. They conquered “the known world” as it was said at the time. That wasn’t really true, as even the Romans admitted that they did not conquer the Germanic tribes in Germania Magna, Sarmatia, Aethiopia, Iberia, Arabia Felix, Caledonia, Hibernia, etc.
These names are instructive, as these are the places that the Romans did not conquer.
Hibernia was Ireland; to this day, Irish English, which can be very hard to understand, is called Hibernian English. Caledonia for Scotland makes no sense to me, but there is a province in the Solomon Islands in Melanesia called New Caledonia, FWIW. Iberia for the Caucasus makes no sense either, as Iberia usually means the Spanish Peninsula nowadays.
All of Africa outside North Africa is simply referred to as Aethiopia. Arabia Felix is the Arabian Peninsula. Germania Major (Greater Germany) is the area of the fiercest German tribes; perhaps they were just too much hassle to conquer. Sarmatia is Russia; this means nothing to me.
Now for the provinces. Egypt is Aegyptus. Libya is Creta et Cyrene, apparently a combination province of Crete (Creta) and Cyrene (Libya). Israel/Palestine is Judea. Syria, Lebanon, etc. is Syria. This notion of Greater Syria lives on with Pan-Syrianists such as the Syrian Social Nationalist Party. Iraq is Mesopotamia. Armenia is Armenia, but much larger than today. Bulgaria is Thracia. The regions of Western Turkey are familiar to me, but mean nothing anymore. Romania is Dacia.
The name of Dacia is important. Nordicists claim that some mysterious Northern European superior folks came down to Italy, conquered inferior greasy dagos, and became the ancient White Romans. Like most Nordicist crap, it’s a lie. The Romans, true, did not come from Italy. Instead they came from Dacia.
No one really knows who the Dacians were, but I doubt they were Germans. They probably looked dark like the Romanians of today. This group has also had some Scythian-type Ossetian/Iranian inputs 1600 years ago or so. So the Romans were Southern Europeans.
Italy was Italia, and Sicily was Sicilia. Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, etc. were Dalmatia. This name lives on in the Dalmatian Coast of Croatia. Sardinia and Corsica retain their Roman names. Portugal is Lusitania, and Portuguese speaking nations today are called Lusophone regions. North Africa, for some reason, is Mauritania – is this a reference to “Moors?” Western France was Aquitania – think Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Southern France was Norbonensis; there is a city called Narbonne in the region today. The Balearic Islands were called Baleares. Northern Greece was Macedonia. A region called Belgica covered northeastern France – think Belgium. The part of Germany known today as the Rhineland was conquered and referred as Germania Inferior and Superior.
The area in and around Switzerland and Southern Germany was referred to as Raetia. The branch of the Romance Language family that today contains Romansch is referred to as Rhaetian. The Southern Germans and Swiss have a large dose of “Roman” in them, and their languages have a Romance influence. I recently met a Bavarian man who looked for all the world like a Frenchman.
England and Wales are Brittania. This name lives in on the British nationalist phrase, “Rule Brittania.”
I left off a number of place names that mean nothing to me. There are also some cities there, but the names are very hard to read. Londonium is London. Salamanca is a now a region in Spain. Roma is Rome, and Syracuse is in Sicily. Carthaga is in Tunisia. Alexandria yet exists in Egypt. Caesarea was a city in northern Israel, now abandoned on the sand dunes. Thessalonika in Northern Greece still exists, as does Antiochia in Turkey (Antioch).
The legend of this map, as you can see, is in German. The shaded area of the Roman Empire is the Romanisches Reich, a nice touch.
Romanisches Reich it was.