Method and Conclusion. See here.
Results. A ratings system was designed in terms of how difficult it would be for an English-language speaker to learn the language. In the case of English, English was judged according to how hard it would be for a non-English speaker to learn the language. Speaking, reading and writing were all considered.
Ratings: Languages are rated 1-6, easiest to hardest. 1 = easiest, 2 = moderately easy to average, 3 = average to moderately difficult, 4 = very difficult, 5 = extremely difficult, 6 = most difficult of all. Ratings are impressionistic.
Time needed. Time needed for an English language speaker to learn the language “reasonably well”: Level 1 languages = 3 months-1 year. Level 2 languages = 6 months-1 year. Level 3 languages = 1-2 years. Level 4 languages = 2 years. Level 5 languages = 3-4 years, but some may take longer. Level 6 languages = more than 4 years.
This post will look at Algonquian in general and Cree, Ojibwa, Cheyenne, Arapaho and Gros Ventre in particular in terms of how hard it would be for an English speaker to learn these languages.
All Algonquian languages have distinctions between animate/inanimate nouns in addition to having proximate/obviate and direct/inverse distinctions. However, most languages that have proximate/obviate and direct/inverse distinctions are not as difficult as Algonquian. Proximate/obviative is a way of marking the 3rd person in discourse. It distinguishes between an important 3rd person (proximate) and a more peripheral 3rd person (obviative). Animate nouns and possessor nouns tend to be marked proximate while inanimate nouns and possessed nouns tend to be marked obviative.
Direct/inverse is a way of marking discourse in terms of saliency, topicality or animacy. When a noun ranks higher than another in terms of saliency, topicality or animacy means it means that this noun ranks higher than the other in terms of person hierarchy. It is used only in transitive clauses. When the subject has a higher ranking than the object, the direct form is used. When the object has a higher ranking than the object, the inverse form is used.
Central Algonquian Cree-Montagnais
Cree is very hard to learn. It is written in a variety of different ways with different alphabets and syllabic systems, complicating matters even further. The syllabic alphabet has many problems and is often listed as one of the worst scripts out there. It is polysynthetic and has long, short and nasal vowels and aspirated and unaspirated voiceless consonants. Words are divided into “metrical feet,” the rules for determining stress placement in words are quite complex, and there is lots of irregularity. Vowels fall out a lot, or syncopate, within words.
Cree adds noun classifiers to the mix, and both nouns and verbs are marked as animate or inanimate. In addition, verbs are marked for transitive and intransitive. In addition, verbs get different affixes depending on whether they occur in main or subordinate clauses.
Cree is rated 6, hardest of all.
Ojibwa is said to be about as hard to learn as Cree as it is very similar.
Ojibwa is rated 6, hardest of all.
Plains Algonquian Cheyenne
Cheyenne is well-known for being a hard Amerindian language to learn. Like many polysynthetic languages, it can have very long words.
Náohkêsáa’oné’seómepêhévetsêhésto’anéhe. “I truly don’t know Cheyenne very well.”
Cheyenne is quite regular, but has so many complex rules that it is hard to figure them all out.
Cheyenne is rated 6, hardest of all.
Arapaho has a strange phonology. It lacks phonemic low vowels. The vowel system consists of i, ɨ~,u, ɛ, and ɔ, with no low phonemic vowels. Each vowel also has a corresponding long version. In addition, there are four diphthongs, ei, ou, oe and ie, several triphthongs, eii, oee, and ouu, as well as extended sequences of vowels such as eee with stress on either the first or the last vowel in the combination. Long vowels of various types are common:
Héétbih’ínkúútiinoo. “I will turn out the lights.”
Honoosóó’. “It is raining.”
There is a pitch accent system with normal, high and allophonic falling tones. Arapaho words also undergo some very wild sound changes.
Arapaho is rated 6, hardest of all.
Gros Ventre has a similar phonological system and similar elaborate sound changes as Arapaho.
Gros Ventre is rated 5, hardest of all.