Black – White IQ Gap in the US

Here.
From Chuck’s excellent Occidentalist site which lately has been dealing a lot with the issue of race realism and IQ. He spends an incredible amount of time and research dealing with these questions and he’s smart as all get out. I dare say he might even be smarter than I am. At any rate, I have a hard time keeping up with him.
He had several extremely long articles about the Black-White IQ gap in the US. Since he generally takes an anti-HBD stance when it comes to race and IQ, I figured that was his take on this issue too.
But you see in the above post that he thinks the B-W Q gap in the US is probably more a result of genetics than anything else. That was a pretty amazing admission for an anti-HBD IQ guy. I have been studying the B-W IQ gap for at least 30 years now. I started in the 1970’s and never quit. Lately I don’t read much about it because I pretty much made up my mind a long time ago. I still hold out hope that it might be amenable to a closing of the gap, but I get less and less certain over time.
If you spend as much time researching the gap as I have, after a while, the conclusion that it must be generally keeps on punching you in the face. It knocks you down over and over. People who study it that much and still say it’s environmental have pretty much been KO’d 1000’s of times and are standing up once again to fight George Foreman and lose.
I don’t talk about much on here, and officially, my line is only that at the moment in the US, Whites are more intelligent than Blacks by about 13.2 points.
Through a lot of fancy messing around with statistics and some journalistic license, I was able to shave a couple of points off the standard 1 SD gap, but I realize that’s not particularly scientific, only that one can make the case by choosing certain tests. Chuck agrees with me that adult Blacks have shaved ~1.5 points off the gap, we both agree that Black kids have shaved ~5-6 points off the gap.
I would argue that IQ tests are a valid measure of intelligence, and that at the moment, Whites are smarter than Blacks on average. Officially, I am not saying what is causing the gap, but we ought to be discussing the fact that it’s real. Whites are smarter. Blacks are not as smart or dumber or however you put it. That’s the important question, and the one society ought to be talking about.
Instead, once you say that, you get an instant derail into whether the gap is genetic or environmental. Frankly, I could care less, and I am not even sure if it’s an important question! We need to stop those derails on move back to the question that one privileged group is much smarter than a group that has a ton of problems. I am afraid that a lot of the problems of Blacks, though not all of them, flow directly from that IQ gap itself.
People (racists) say we need to quit spending so much money trying to close the IQ gap, but society doesn’t spend a dime on this endeavor. Nor do we spend a dime on trying to close the testing gap which mysteriously mirrors the IQ gap. Educators try their best to educate both Whites and Blacks, and there’s not one single penny spent on trying to close any gaps, nor should there by. Educational resources instead should be distributed equitably.
Racists also say that the gap means that Blacks cannot be educated. This is not true. Any person above 70 IQ can be educated, and even the retarded can be educated to some extent. A person with an 85 IQ can and should be educated to the maximum of their potential, and this is what we can or should do. Saying that an 85 IQ human being cannot be taught a single thing in life is the most utter nonsense.
One thing that unfortunately flows from this fact is that once folks figure there’s an IQ gap set in stone, they typically decide that Whites therefore must separate from Blacks. But this makes no sense.
50% of the White population has IQ’s below 100 and so does 84% of the Black population. 16% of the White population has IQ’s below 85, and no White people talk about separating from them and forming some over 85 IQ White state.
In White society, people of all IQ’s live happily together, and there’s no reason to think that races with differential IQ’s cannot also live happily together.
Please feel free to discuss…

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0 thoughts on “Black – White IQ Gap in the US”

  1. “In White society, people of all IQ’s live happily together, and there’s no reason to think that races with differential IQ’s can also live happily together.”
    You left out a “not” somewhere, right?
    Can blacks and whites live happily with an IQ gap? That depends on whether we can marginalize the activists who believe that the disparities in achievement constitute prima facie proof that either societal barriers or the legacy of oppression are the cause of them; and that by extension whites owe blacks whatever interventions are necessary to make the achievement gaps exist.
    If you can: a) convince African Americans that they’re the luckiest black people on earth just to be here, and that the legacy of slavery is that they don’t live like Haitians or Ethiopians; and b) allow private, non-governmental discrimination. THEN racial harmony can be just around the corner.

    1. Oh brother…that’s the problem with this HBD movement and what I must admit is the most frightening aspect of it. The HBDers think if they can prove IQ gaps are genetic, then ALL race problems in America are due to an intelligence gap. Of course what does an intelligence gap have to do with the fact that blacks and whites get treated differently in sentencing in the justice system, for example. Or that our government for years gave whites snorting cocaine a slap on the wrist while openly allowing crack to be smuggled into inner city neighborhoods and then handing our stiffer sentences to users. It runs way deeper than any 15pt IQ gap.
      And I’ll be damned if you use drag out that “you’re not in Haiti so stop complaining” argument. Like that couldn’t have been used against Irish people facing discrimination in America after the potato famine(and they scored low on IQ tests too, btw). That’s like saying a gay person has no right to complain about any unfair treatment in America because gays have it worse in Iran. Totally bullshit argument.

      1. There IS discrimination by race in America. There is also discrimination against fat women, short men, and people with irritating nasal voices. Those aren’t perceived as fundamental cleaves in society because those groups don’t suffer an intelligence gap, whose effects get easily confused with those of discrimination. Historically in America, Jews, Chinese and Italians all suffered discrimination and pulled themselves through it by creating self-sustaining communities; black communities overwhelming failed to achieve at the same level. And this was predictable, because Jews, Chinese and Italians have all created successful societies when permitted to do so. Show us a successful black society, other than a small nation with natural resource gifts (Gabon or Barbados).
        As long as HBD is not allowed into the mainstream of conversation, the argument will never end that “our interventions on behalf of blacks are being thwarted by whites’ ability to find increasingly subtle and invisible ways of discriminating.” Step One is advancing the dialogue by free speech and respect for diversity of opinions.

        1. The sad truth is that he’s right, we are the luckiest blacks on earth, think about it they could of just killed all of us, sent us back to Africa, taken over Africa and killed all Africans. we could have ended up like the native Americans, there nation over run by others and completely controlled with no hope of a true Native American civilization anymore there race soon to tragically fade away.
          The races that he mention all had many major feats and civilizations in the past, Africa had some minor ones but none rivaling Rome or China.

        2. Richard, I don’t care what you are he says. I think “lucky” is a perverse word to use here. Would you really go back 400 years and tell a slave standing on a auction block that he is in fact lucky but just doesn’t know it? Are you “lucky” that you carry the last name of a white slave master rather than of your ancestral family like white people do? Does it make you lucky that most of Africans speak a Western language, yet no Europeans speak an African language? Were black women lucky being raped by slavemasters while black men could do nothing about the rape of their daughters, wives and sisters by white men? I could go on and on. I don’t call any of this “luck” by any means. I didn’t choose to be black, I didn’t choose to be born in American, or even choose to be born on this world for that matter. I just happen to be in this place at this particular point in time and it is what it is. For all the whites calling us lucky to be here, I’d like to ask them if they’d trade places with one of those “lucky” slaves that had to make that middle passage crossing. The hubris of some white people knows no limit.

        3. Tulio
          Most of the slaves brought to the Americas had been from lower social castes and would likely have been slaves in West Africa as well.

        4. @WmarkW
          “There IS discrimination by race in America. There is also discrimination against fat women, short men, and people with irritating nasal voices.”
          That analogy is so ridiculous it hardly merits a response. None of these people were systematically discriminated against. There was no COINTELPRO against short men or people with irritating voices(ask Fred Hampton). Fat women weren’t denied FHA loans(that basically created the middle class as we know it).
          “Those aren’t perceived as fundamental cleaves in society because those groups don’t suffer an intelligence gap, whose effects get easily confused with those of discrimination.”
          Actually all those groups tested as low IQ during the great migration era.
          “Historically in America, Jews, Chinese and Italians all suffered discrimination and pulled themselves through it by creating self-sustaining communities black communities overwhelming failed to achieve at the same level”
          You’re funny. When blacks built prosperous, self-sustaining communities such as in Tulsa or Rosewood, whites torched their fucking communities to the ground. Now did they do that with Italians and Irish?
          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsa_race_riot
          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosewood_massacre
          “Show us a successful black society, other than a small nation with natural resource gifts (Gabon or Barbados).”
          What are you define as successful? A place that emulates the West? I’m sure Nomadic Berbers and Masai feel as proud of their culture and society as you do yours. They may even consider your way of life a failure.
          “As long as HBD is not allowed into the mainstream of conversation, the argument will never end that “our interventions on behalf of blacks are being thwarted by whites’ ability to find increasingly subtle and invisible ways of discriminating.” Step One is advancing the dialogue by free speech and respect for diversity of opinions.”
          Problem with your argument is that if we were only talking about people in the projects on welfare with no education, I may concede a point. Ask well educated blacks with good income if they have ever faced discrimination and racism in the workplace and you won’t find a single that hasn’t. I remember Tim Wise quoting a study where they made a bunch of fake resumes to apply to job openings. Some have stereotypically white sounding names, some had stereotypically black sounding names. The resumes were made so that the qualifications of each her identical. Only difference was the name. Guess which ones resumes were not getting call backs? Even the most powerful black man in America gets tens times as many death threats as his predecessor and has to have his “American-ness” constantly questioned. Discrimination has never been limited to poor and low IQ blacks.

        5. @GSG
          No, they were captured from rivals. I’m aware that slavery existed in Africa prior to colonialism,as it did in just about every part of the world. However slavery in pre-colonial Africa was not the same animal it was in the New World. A slave in Africa could earn his way out of slavery, and it obviously wasn’t based upon skin color. The slavery within Africa was more like what the rest of the world would call indentured servitude and they were not slaves for life and certainly not based upon their skin color.

  2. Dear Robert
    You wrote that 94% of blacks have IQs below 100. Surely, that should have been 84%.
    There are about 38 million blacks in the US. If 16% have an IQ above 100, then that’s about 6 million. If 5% of those can be described as quite intelligent, then there are 300,000 quite intelligent blacks in the US. That’s about 1/1000 Americans. Still, absolutely, it isn’t such a small number. It is the population of Iceland.
    Regards. James

    1. 16%? Seems like I’d be more just from a cursory visual glance at the chart: http://lagriffedulion.f2s.com/retar0%7Bimage0%7D.gif I could be wrong though.
      I’ve always thought that a black IQ of 85 is not the same as a white IQ of 85. There is what I call “The Mohammed Ali conundrum.” Ali had an IQ of 78, which meant he was even slow for a black man, yet he doesn’t come across as stupid. Rather the opposite, he seemed rather sharp in conversation. He was excellent at fast-thinking, witty humor. He also is known for boiling down life wisdom down to very memorable one-liners.
      http://hasnain.wordpress.com/2009/08/25/the-wit-and-wisdom-of-muhammad-ali/
      Don’t know how he’d do on a math test, but he doesn’t come across as being as unintelligent as his IQ score would suggest. Funny thing is, a white guy with an IQ of 78 would have drool running down his chin.
      I have a deep suspicion that IQ tests don’t fairly measure black people. Or there is something these tests are not measuring with regards to black people. I’ve known too many black that may not have been good students, but seem sharp in a street-smart and conversation sense. Often have an acute sense of quick humor(spontaneous humor is a form of intelligence). You might have a Nigerian guy with an IQ of 80, yet he knows how to hustle and game people with way higher IQs. I’ve seen this stuff with my own eyes. I don’t know how to explain it, but I don’t think IQ is the full picture.

      1. ‘thrown thunder in jail’ I always wondered what the hell he was saying there! thanks.
        Its true about Ali. You’d expect somebody with an IQ of 78 to be dull and stupid but ‘bright’ and ‘sharp’ seem to describe him better. People close to him have said they think he might be dyslexic. Maybe that explains why he isn’t good with written tests. Plus he never paid any attention to his education.
        I know what you mean though. I’m familiar with that kind of person who is quick thinking, astute, successful and articulate without using big word (also very streetwise), but who struggles with academic stuff.
        Then again, in the case of the Nigerian scammer, you don’t really know how high his IQ is unless it has been tested. You get black thugs with above black average IQS.

      2. Was Ali’s 78 the score he got deliberately tanking the Army test to avoid conscription, not an honest best effort?

        1. Hmm, I think it did come from a military test. I had never thought about your hypothesis. You could prove right.

        2. hmmm its possible but I doubt it. 78 wasn’t that low for a black guy at the time; he was quite a slow reader for real; he was quite a poor student in school and focused on boxing and other things; he said at some point that he didn’t know where to begin answering the questions. Also, I think it would have had a fairly good chance of coming out later if that was true.
          That doesn’t mean I believe his score necessarily reflects his true intelligence or potential. It may not have. Maybe he was dyslexic (as people close to him have suspected) or maybe he just didn’t happen to learn to read as well as he could have.
          He just didn’t seem dumb. There was a lucidity and quickness to his mind (also reflected by his lighting reflexes and hyper awareness in the ring), he articulated himself well, he fought smartly.
          It was a 1964 army conscription test and his poor result did prevent him from being drafted until they lowered the standards a few years later. So there is at least a solid motive.
          ‘I said I was the greatest, not the smartest’ -Ali

        1. They don’t. I know a guy who is an artistic genius who can’t possibly have an IQ over 100. And one of my relatives is a great artist, but she’s also probably the dumbest one in her family. I don’t know what her IQ is, but I knew all four of her sisters, and all of them were smarter than she is.

  3. Obviously I’m going to chime in on this lol.
    What is all this evidence for a genetic explanation that keeps punching you in the face over and over again? I’d like to see some of it.
    The way I think about it is this: Given the Flynn effect, in about the late 1960’s white people as a group had the same IQ as black people now have.
    Different social conditions = different IQ.
    Black people have different social circumstances and conditions in America to white people, and there are cultural differences. They are not in identical circumstances or culture even to poor white people.
    Therefore, its perfectly rational that black people might have an IQ equivalent to late 1960’s whites (and higher than 1930’s whites) due to the different social circumstances.
    To take the wider context, Africans with an IQ of 80 (average of all ravens tests done in Africa), have the same IQ as Europeans had 60 year ago. Their social conditions are even worse than those in Europe 60 years ago. As they improve, their IQ scores WILL improve.
    African IQ is 80: http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2010.pdf
    The fact that IQ decreases as a black child grows up is not proof that inferior genes end up limiting their potential. It could also be evidence that the longer they are in the social environment of blacks, the more important that environment becomes to their IQ score. The longer their development is held back due to environment, the further behind they fall.
    Here is an abstract from an adoption study:
    “The poor performance of Black children on IQ tests and in school has been hypothesized to arise from (a) genetic racial differences or (b) cultural/environmental disadvantages. To separate genetic factors from rearing conditions, 130 Black and interracial children adopted by advantaged White families were studied. The socially classified Black adoptees, whose natural parents were educationally average, scored above the IQ and the school achievement mean of the White population”
    http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=1977-07996-001
    As for the famous Minnesota study, Scarr, one of the authors, wrote in 1998:
    “The test performance of the Black/Black adoptees [in the study] was not different from that of ordinary Black children reared by their own families in the same area of the country. My colleagues and I reported the data accurately and as fully as possible, and then tried to make the results palatable to environmentally committed colleagues. In retrospect, this was a mistake. The results of the transracial adoption study can be used to support either a genetic difference hypothesis or an environmental difference one (because the children have visible African ancestry). We should have been agnostic on the conclusions.”
    Also, I will have to look into it but I think that adoptees in general tend to have higher rates of delinquency and other problems, and this effect could be even more so when the adoptee is a different race to the parents.

  4. “In White society, people of all IQ’s live happily together, and there’s no reason to think that races with differential IQ’s cannot also live happily together.”
    Three reasons (and surely more):
    1) Blacks have higher testosterone and seem quite clearly to be more prone to violent and impulsive behavior. Low IQ whites don’t exhibit the violent, murderous, and criminal behavior anywhere near to the extent that low IQ blacks do. Take a look at different races across the low-income spectrum – the neighborhoods of poor whites and poor Asians are not the crime-infested, rape-infested, and violence-infested hellholes that are poor black neighborhoods.
    2) Humans are tribal… and to the mid/high-IQ whites, Blacks are a much more separately identifiable entity than low-IQ whites. Blacks subscribe to much different culture (and make a strong effort to do so), they are much different in physical appearance, and have a completely different historical ancestry. A White society of people of all IQ’s living happily together have those things in common – shared physical features, shared cultural leanings, shared sense of history / European ancestry/values… these things create natural bonds among a population that people take for granted.
    3) The wealth distribution factor. In our modern world, when the economic/taxation/social program pie is looked at as a whole, the mid/high-IQ population financially supports the lower IQ population. In the USA, then, on the whole, wealth is continuously taken from whites and transferred to blacks.
    To sum this all up:
    You have a clearly identifiable sub-group of people that has a different set of history and values than you… this sub-group commits disproportionately more violence and crime than the rest of the population, and is a constant source of dysfunction and trouble… and to top it off, the rest of the population is, on the whole, on the hook for financially subsidizing this sub-group of the population.
    How can you seriously be surprised when the core population is resentful of this sub-group of people, and would prefer they be gone? How can you seriously think that there’s “no reason” for different groups of people with differing IQ’s (or abilities in general) to naturally descend to this type of resentful dynamic towards each other? How can you possibly think that a population that is structured this way won’t naturally result in social tensions?
    Note that the resentment will work both ways. The underperforming sub-group will also naturally have resentment towards the more successful main group as well.
    This is not a recipe for a harmonious, liberal society.

    1. “the rest of the population is, on the whole, on the hook for financially subsidizing this sub-group of the population.”
      Break this down. Define how many blacks are “subsidized”. Tell me how many blacks don’t work, how many are on welfare, etc.
      There is a black underclass in America, but they are a minority of the black population. Yet as always, the black underclass is applied equally to all black people whether they are in the ghetto or not. I don’t even think most whites realize that the majority of black Americans don’t live in ghettos.

  5. Chuck’s position is that the Black-White gap in the US is mostly genetic. His position on the IQs of Black Africans outside the US however, is different, i.e. he is skeptical that there are genetic Black-White gaps, or at least that there are more than small ones). He discusses some evidence on the latter in posts at “Occidentalist”. The comment threads are interesting too. He often goes into greater detail there. A few of the posts, with the more recent at top, are:
    Race, class, and cognition in the UK
    More evidence: UK math and reading achievement gaps
    A gaping hole in the Master’s evolutionary theory
    Is (global) “race realism” still tenable?

  6. The adresses of the posts above:
    Adresseoccidentalascent.wordpress.com/2012/04/13/race-class-and-cognition-in-the-uk/
    occidentalascent.wordpress.com/2012/04/09/more-evidence-uk-math-and-reading-achievement-gaps/
    occidentalascent.wordpress.com/2012/04/05/a-gaping-hole-in-the-masters-evolutionary-theory/
    occidentalascent.wordpress.com/2012/02/06/is-global-race-realism-still-tenable/

  7. People (racists) say we need to quit spending so much money trying to close the IQ gap, but society doesn’t spend a dime on this endeavor.
    Is that really what racists say? I’m a racist but I haven’t heard that line before. I think most racists would agree, though, that money shouldn’t begin to be spent on that endeavor, and that’s a point worth making.
    One thing that unfortunately flows from this fact is that once folks figure there’s an IQ gap set in stone, they typically decide that Whites therefore must separate from Blacks. But this makes no sense.
    A minimal response is to demand that society cease reflexively blaming Whites for Blacks’ problems. This is just White self-defense against unjust accusations. Most Black problems have their genesis in Blacks’ inherited predispositions and limitations. This problem of reflexively blaming Whites is so widespread, so ingrained, and has festered for so long that Whites are well within their rights to demand recompense. One form such recompense could take is separation, but there are many other equally valid reasons for wishing to separate from Blacks that have little to do with recompense.
    Richard Hall,
    The sad truth is that he’s right, we are the luckiest blacks on earth, think about it they could of just killed all of us, sent us back to Africa, taken over Africa and killed all Africans. we could have ended up like the native Americans, there nation over run by others and completely controlled with no hope of a true Native American civilization anymore there race soon to tragically fade away.
    This is true and I’m glad you’re able to acknowledge it. White America has brought itself to the verge of destruction as a direct result of the quest to equalize Blacks. Whatever problems Blacks still have, it’s a sign of supreme ingratitude to deny that Blacks in America have it better than anywhere else on earth. I could scarcely think of a better way to infuriate Whites than to whine that “not enough” has been done for Blacks, that Whites must give more, more, more. Whites have given enough. Whites have virtually given up their right to exist as a group, with common group interests, on this Earth (anywhere on Earth, think of it!) because doing so might upset Blacks, but in the mind of the Black man “Tulio” this is still not enough.

  8. As Robert mentioned in one of his previous articles, Black race evolved for sex. The presence of high level of Testosterone might have contributed to their relatively lower level of their IQ. I am curious to know the IQ levels of Southern US trash white population group. I guess the IQ’s of Blacks and Southies should converge. IQ is to a certain extent relate to cultural preferences. Black females find geeky black males sexually unattractive. Similarly US Southies generally prefer anti intellectual types. Take this hypothetical situation. Suppose Whites were confined to sub Saharan Africa and ancient blacks roamed freely in highly challenging Steppes or tundra regions, where food is scarce. The steppe dwelling blacks would have evolved a high IQ. All isolated population groups have inferior IQ levels. Take the example of Australian, Papuans, Native Americans. These groups were never exposed to outside civilization. There were exchange of ideas between Ancient Egyptians and Greeks, between Greeks and Romans, between Indus valley people and Mesopotamian people, between ancient Chinese and other civilizations etc. Remember the fact that supposedly high IQ Germanic people lived a miserable African like existence 300 generations ago. In human evolution time scale 300 generation difference is
    insignificant. It is hard to believe that Germanic brain structure for higher intelligence changed in the last 300 generation. If that is the case there is hope for Blacks.

    1. In human evolution time scale 300 generation difference is
      insignificant.

      Why would that be? The Ashkenazi Jews, for instance, appear to have evolved very superior intelligences within the span of just a millennium or so of (admittedly very rigorous) selection.

      1. mental evolve accelerates in tandem w. technology. nontechnology and the growth of population & so were approaching vertical on the graph

        1. what really pisses me off is that were penalised for ag on iq tests
          why should younger people be considered smarter than old people w. the same iq
          also there are people w. high test anxiety who seize up over high profile tests such as iq tests

  9. One thing that unfortunately flows from this fact is that once folks figure there’s an IQ gap set in stone, they typically decide that Whites therefore must separate from Blacks. But this makes no sense.
    The devil’s advocate response would be that a Black with an IQ of 85 isn’t really equivalent to a white with an IQ of 85 because of regression to the racial mean. I.e., with an equal-IQ mate, the white’s offspring can be expected to have an IQ of around 91 (and his offspring of 95, etc) whereas the Black offspring will remain at around 85.
    I don’t support coercive separate development either as I support freedom of individual choice and association, but I imagine the above consideration would figure prominently in any intellectual defense of apartheid.

      1. On balance yes, I do oppose them (I’m talking of equal impact and the like). If companies are going to disqualify Blacks for jobs out of genuine racism, as opposed to objective criteria such as IQ, then that will be its own punishment; they will have hired a more incompetent white worker than would have otherwise been the case, and as such will now be less productive than they otherwise could have been and will suffer in competition with companies that hire on merit alone.
        I do not oppose a small amount of pro-Black affirmative action in terms of political and bureaucratic appointments. After all, in a democratic society, some consideration has to be made for representation in addition to meritocracy.

    1. Is this proven? That if two IQ 85 white parents have a child, that the child will be significantly more intelligent than the parents? So what if two retarded whites are allowed to procreate? Would their kid’s IQs be closer to the mean of 100 than they are to the threshold of retardation?

      1. I am currently reading Murray’s latest book Coming Apart and it mentions that on average regression to the mean is of the order of 40% per generation. So if an 85 IQ couple mates that would be 40% of 15 points or 6 points of upwards convergence, ergo expected IQ of 91.
        It works the other way too. A couple of geniuses are more likely to produce a merely high IQ child than a genius.

        1. Murray is the author of the (in)famous The Bell Curve along with Herrnstein.
          He is most certainly not a WN. Even in The Bell Curve he tried to minimize the racial and genetic aspects of IQ disparities to the extent reasonably possibly, and so far has skirted the issue entirely in Coming Apart. Not to mention that his co-author Herrnstein was a Jew. He is best described as a social conservative.

        2. I knew it’s Charles Murray and that he’s right-wing and libertarian, but I don’t know if he’s a self-avowed WN or de-facto WN like Pat Buchanan.

        3. He is more of a traditionalist, than a run of the mill social conservative. He does like to think of himself as an indepedent thinker even though
          I don’t believe he is a classist (in the IQ sense), but his work is full of inconsistencies and it’s obviously tailored to his audience (he freely tosses around casual, non academic words such as “dumb” and sloppy) and I don’t even like reading academic journals and I felt it was too easy. You could call it The Idiots Guide to Idiots.

  10. I have a hard time keeping up with him too. His replies blow me out of the water. He just knows the subject so well.

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