Black IQ Gains in Britain, Kenya and Dominica

Repost from the old site.

A recent post of mine noted that the Black IQ in the US has shown gains of about 5.5 points against Whites in both children and adults. At age 12, the Black IQ is now 90.5, as opposed to 85 30 years ago. Black adult IQ’s have risen from 79 to 84.5 during the same period.

At the same time, Blacks have shown major gains in achievement test results relative to Whites. They narrowed the achievement gap by about 30

Rising IQ’s over time are referred to as the Flynn Effect (FE). In Britain, the results are even better. West Indian Blacks in the UK now have an IQ of about 93.5 at age 11. Scores for adult Caribbeans in the UK are not known. Studies from 1960’s-70’s showed an IQ of 85 for these same children, but now it has moved up by 8.5 points. Young Caribbean Blacks in the UK have closed the IQ gap by more than half.

Interestingly, this IQ increase has coincided with a spectacular increase in crime among these British-born Jamaicans. The first generation that came in the 1950’s and 60’s were mostly hard-working and law-abiding. But their offspring in many ways have been a disaster.

Here we see once again the phenomenon discussed on this blog before, that the male children of low-wage immigrants to the West are often criminals. This even held for the offspring of Irish, Italian and some Jewish Whites to the US over 100 years ago. With a rising IQ coinciding with a skyrocketing crime rate, again we see the disconnect between the simplistic game that White Nationalists play called “low IQ = high crime”.

Most Caribbean Blacks in the UK are Jamaicaans. In Jamaica, the Black IQ is about 71.5.

A counterargument to these rising Jamaican IQ gains is that these Jamaicans are heavily intermarrying with Whites. In the first generation, up to 25

But let us look at the argument. If base Jamaican IQ is 71.5, then a 25

A good analysis of the UK Jamaican data is that, if assuming the benefit of increased White genes, the more complex modern environment in the UK is raising Jamaican IQ by 5-10 points. In another score 92 at that age, both scores in comparison to a White score of 100. The Black US score then declines to 85 (a 10 point drop) and the African Black score drops to 67 (an incredible 25 point drop). Black scores decline as children age, and this recent post suggests that an initial high score followed by sharply declining scores are indicative of earlier maturation among Blacks. I do not know to what extent early Black maturation (Blacks do mature earlier, and this has a genetic basis) explains the strange phenomenon of high Black IQ’s in small children which rapidly decline into adulthood.

But it is interesting that Tizard’s group raised together in an institutional setting, the young Black kids had even higher IQ’s than the Whites.

In the Caribbean nation of Dominica, there has been a stunning rise in IQ over a 36 year period from 1965-2001. There was an 18 point rise during this period, which rose their IQ’s from 61 to 73 (the IQ’s did not rise by 18 points because other groups’ IQ’s were also rising during this period). This represents a gain against UK Whites of 12 IQ points.

The test used was Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a test that is said to be the best available for measuring pure “g” intelligence.

A schematic of the g, or general intelligence, factor. The ovals represent subtests on an intelligence test. G is a correlation coefficient of various tests. It measures the tendency of superior test takers (and someone who has a brain that works a bit better), where if they do well on one test, they also tend to do well on all other tests. The
FE is generally not on g because some tests have risen dramatically, others moderately, and still others little or not at all. Therefore, intelligence has not risen in a general, across-the-board kind of way. However, certain aspects of intelligence have definitely risen, and those aspects would seem to me to have quantifiable benefits in modern society occupationally, academically, and in other ways.


It also predicts success in life in various ways pretty well and is not culturally biased in any way. The researchers gave a vocabulary test to the group and found a similar rise of about 18 IQ points on that test.

Researchers tried to tease out which factors were most related to the IQ rise. The only factor that explained the rise fairly well was schooling, so it appeared that improved schooling was a major cause of the IQ rise. The IQ rise occurred at the time of a major expansion of the school system in Dominica.

Socioeconomic status of parents explained about 10

These findings are interesting for many reasons. This post suggests that most of the FE is due to increased caloric intake among children, resulting in earlier maturation. Improved nutrition has often been suggested as a reason for the FE but did not seem to be a factor here.

Those who favor a genetic explanation for racial variations in IQ (nearly all of whom are White racists) disparage all societal interventions to increase IQ as worthless. In particular, they oppose spending any more money on educating “inferior” Blacks and Browns, as it is just throwing good money after bad. This study indicates that increased educational spending can indeed have IQ benefits for Blacks.

Some other findings in this study are of interest. One is that the rise is on the Raven’s test, which is the most heavily g -loaded test in existence. Critics of the FE claim that the rise is not on g, or general intelligence, and hence it is worthless. The Dominican rise was definitely on g.

In the West, while there have been major rises in tests of problem-solving, visual analysis, visual intelligence, and verbal analysis, there have been little to no gains in general knowledge, vocabulary, arithmetic, and mathematical analysis.

Some interpret this to mean that there has been no rise in general intelligence – only a rise in “factors subject to environmental bias.” Such an analysis is false – but it is interesting that in Dominica such huge gains are being seen in vocabulary, while in the West, vocabulary gains have only been 4.4 points over 80 years.

A study out of Kenya in 2003 looking at 7 year old children found an incredible 26 point gain over 14 years from 1984-1998 in rural Kenya, leaving them with an IQ of 89 (Daley et al 2003). This apparently represented a 21 point IQ gain over British Whites from the previous IQ of 68.

The rise was correlated with schooling, family structure, nutrition, and the health of the children. Schooling seemed to be the major factor and once again coincided with a major educational expansion by the government. The test used was the children’s version of Raven’s, the Children’s Progressive Matrices, once again a very g-loaded test, so the Kenyan rise was also on g.

The Kenyan, UK, and Dominican studies are important because they show Blacks reducing the Black-White IQ gap by 10-15 points in a few decades. Hereditarians argue that the Black-White gap is permanent in all areas of the world, and that Blacks are a hopelessly stupid race – a drain on humanity. All money spent on raising Black IQ’s is wasted for this reason.

The three studies above show purely environmental factors causing major reductions in the Black-White IQ gap.

Another study found massive gains, that I have not been able to quantify, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, over a 72-74 year period. The gains were probably at least on the order of 20 points. Researchers suggested that increased cognitive stimulation in the form of a more complex world was responsible for the rise.

A common complaint of all of these studies showing rising Black IQ’s, both in tandem with Whites and in closing the Black-White gap, is that the studies are done only on children. But most IQ tests are done on kids. Taking African studies as an example, we can see here that 69

In my opinion, testing kids is probably a better way to measure pure neurological efficiency without throwing in all sorts of potentially confounding extraneous variables.

Adults are much more likely than kids to have physical and mental diseases (schizophrenia and depression lower IQ), to be in jail, prison, or homeless, to abuse alcohol and drugs, or to have suffered serious head injuries. All of these factors throw a monkey wrench into tests that should be trying to show us real differences between races.

Just today, the White Nationalist blog Majority Rights posted a well-done article by Richard D. Fuerle, A Possible Explanation for the Flynn Effect. The article’s interesting premise is that the FE is due to increased caloric intake and even increasing obesity in our modern world. This increased food intake would result in earlier maturation and higher IQ’s among children, which would then level off in adulthood.

The author suggests that the FE is not really an IQ increase but an effect of this early maturation, and that people are getting less intelligent, not more so.

I believe this theory is wrong, though it has an interesting premise. James Flynn also disagrees with Fuerle’s article, saying that the author was led astray, as he did not have good knowledge of the literature. Flynn also disagreed with the notion that the FE was only in children and that it leveled off in adulthood, saying that he had refuted this in an article his famous article published in JEM: The Journal of Educational Measurement, in 1984 (Flynn 2008).

Some of the comments following Fuerle’s article are also not correct.

First of all, IQ’s have been rising among all age groups, not just kids. It’s really a cohort effect. James Flynn agreed with me (Flynn 2007) that Black adults of today have the same IQ scores (100) as the Whites of 1957. Blacks of today have somewhat higher scores than the Whites of WW2.

This brings up a conundrum as one wonders if today’s US Blacks would have been able to beat the Japanese in WW2, since they can’t even seem to run Detroit (Taylor 2007). This long and rather involved post of mine deals with a lot of the arguments around the FE, including some of the misconceptions about it. My post theorizing that Blacks of today equal the Whites of 1957 is here.

Here, I show that Black children and adults have indeed made about a 5.5 IQ point gain on Whites over the past 30 years, coinciding with the liberation of Blacks via Civil Rights laws. The notion that IQ has risen due to increased caloric intake is interesting but probably invalid. Flynn himself says that after 1950, gains due to nutrition were minimal to nil in the West.

Furthermore, the gains should have been across the board, not just in the certain areas that the FE is in. As we see above, the FE is also occurring in 3rd World countries like Kenya and Dominica where excess nutrition is certainly not an issue. In those countries, it is related to better education, if anything. Much of the FE remains mysterious.

The notion that gains are occurring only in certain areas that are “subject to environmental bias” is not correct. First of all, in Dominica, huge gains were seen in vocabulary, one of the areas that is not seeing much gain in the West.

Vocabulary, general knowledge, basic math, and mathematical analysis are all subject to environmental influence too, but Western society has not been promoting these areas so much.

The areas that the FE is occurring in – verbal analysis, analytical reasoning, visual analysis, visuospatial reasoning, on-the-spot problem solving for which no previous method was known, etc. – are areas that our increasingly sophisticated society has been promoting.

We have promoted this in terms of an increasingly complex society and the mass promotion of scientific thinking. The visuospatial aspect may be due to video games, cell phones, computers, and many things that need programming – boom boxes, car radios, microwaves, answering machines, thermostats, on and on.

My personal opinion is that TV has a lot to do with it. TV shows are increasingly complex, and kids sit in front of TVs with clickers clicking through 50 different channels one after the other. The camera usually only focuses on something for a short time, then moves on. Even jokes and dialog on TV come at a rapid pace. Movies seem to have gotten a lot more complex in recent decades too.

Lastly, the FE is only ending or reversing in Scandinavia. It is still going full blast in the US and in the 3rd world.

The notion that IQ is rising while “real intelligence” – general knowledge, math and vocabulary – is not cannot be supported. Those three things are no more “real intelligence” than the stuff that is going up in the FE.

Another argument advanced later in the discussion has to do with Malcolm Gladwell’s misreading of the FE. Gladwell says that the gains have been almost exclusively on a subtest of the WISC called Similarities. Although gains on Similarities reflect increased use of scientific thinking in our society, these gains are disparaged in the comments section as showing a phony effect of increased intelligence when there has been none.

First of all, the commenters are wrong in that gains on Similarities are a meaningless artifact. Similarities tests for the ability to solve problems on-the-spot without a previously learned method. Raven’s tests for the same thing – it is said to test for the “ability to make sense of the buzzing confusion of life.” Second, Gladwell is wrong. Major gains have occurred on many tests, not just Similarities:

Look at the gains:

Similarities         23.45
Picture Arrangement  21.5
Coding               18
Object Assembly      17.35
Block Design         15.9
Picture Completion   11.7
Comprehension        11
Vocabulary           4.4
Arithmetic           2.3
Information          2.1

A nice photo of James Flynn, along with Richard Lynn and Philippe Rushton, from an obscure document reporting on a conference on intelligence in Amsterdam last year, is here. The link also features a short, interesting interview with Flynn along with some interesting abstracts on intelligence.

Some abstracts I found interesting were those showing that the more intelligent people are, the less likely they are to believe in God. Also, among believers, the more intelligent people were, the more liberal and less literal they were in their beliefs. These findings also applied at a national and ethnic level.

Other abstracts showed that the more intelligent people are, they longer they live and the healthier they are. A recent finding not in the document was that in the West, the smarter you are, the more likely you are to be a vegetarian.


Daley, Y. C.; Whaley, S. E.; Sigman, M. D.; Espinosa, M. P.; and Neuman, C. (2003). “IQ On the Rise: The Flynn effect in Rural Kenyan Children.” Psychological Science 14, 215-219.
Flynn, James R. (November 2007). Personal communication.
Flynn, James R. (January 2008). Personal communication.
Keita, Lamin. (December 2007). Personal communication.
Nisbett, R. E. (1998). “error3

27 thoughts on “Black IQ Gains in Britain, Kenya and Dominica”

  1. I agree with the general pattern of black IQ gains, but I can’t countenance quoting Tizard without pointing out that he has achieved results that no one else has replicated (i.e. Black children outscoring White children on tests of cognitive ability) despite countless tests.

  2. Dominica is black? I thought those guys had made a point of being beastly to the darker sort – there was a massacre of Haitians back in the 30’s and then something similar 30 years later.

    My memory is that it was okay to be Black so long as you didn’t call yourself Black.

    I don’t understand this obsession with IQ tests. I failed one when I was 11 when I was in Kenya, but 5 years later I became the youngest undergraduate at the L.S.E…this would be a clear example of how darkies benefit from co-mingling with Whites, except that I’d been to School in India in between.

    At that time, India had the worst T.V in the world. And its fucking hot. The girls were a product of a ten thousand year old breeding program to selectively eliminate the ‘come hither’ look from their eyes.

    No wonder we darkies ended up eating your lunch.

    I.Q, shmyque.

    Real intelligence is having an interesting enough life to quickly get bored of IQ tests. It’s like not having to measure your schlong every five minutes if the honeys are queuing up around the corner for it.

    I recall reading that Maslow – the Humanistic Psychology guy – scored very high on an IQ test and got funding on that basis. Yet, though a qualified M.D, he didn’t realize he’d had a heart attack and wondered why he felt like crap all the time and wondered, like mebbe he needed to do EST or Scream Therapy or summat.

    You write well.

    Why is that?

    1. You are mistaking Dominica, an island, with Dominican Republic, the western half of the island of Hispania.

      You Indian “darkies” are not eating our lunch by any stretch of the imagination, nor will you in the forseeable future. I see you are an Indian nationalist. Refer to my “India Is a Shithole” post for the truth about India.

      It’s not possible to “fail” an IQ test.

      You write well.
      Why is that?

      I am sorry, I don’t understand the question. I’ve written well since I was a young boy. When I was in second grade, I wrote some idiotic poem, but it was supposedly so good for a 2nd grader that the teacher had the principal come in and read it to the class. When I was nine, I was already writing a novel called The History of World War 3. I won awards as a high school journalist – Best Column Award in the state of California. On and on. Writing, it’s one thing I do well.

      I do not agree that IQ tests do not measure “real intelligence” or that very high IQ people are idiots who lack common sense or whatever. Actually, studies have shown that these are myths.

    2. You can’t fail an IQ test. No such thing.

      IQ tests measure how intelligent we are. It’s like any other measurement of humans to see how well they perform some type of skill that humans can perform. They’re perfectly valid. Why are you so hostile to IQ tests. We give tests to measure aptitude and learning in so many areas of life and those are all assumed to be valid. Why single out intelligence tests as invalid?

      We could theoretically design tests to measure social intelligence, physical prowess and talent, musical, artistic, and writing ability. All of these would be perfectly valid.

      You’re not eating our lunch. Your country is a shithole!

      Actually, the more intelligent the person is, the more they tend to be interested those tests. The less intelligent they are, the more hostile they are to those tests. LOL because they don’t score extremely high on them, they say they are worthless! Typical human defensive bullshit.

      A lot of people don’t recognize when they have a heart attack. My Mom just had a heart attack, and she never realized it. They didn’t even figure it out at the hospital when she was there. Also very intelligent people can often lack wisdom and common sense. IQ tests don’t test for that sort of thing.

  3. Me! An Indian Nationalist! Why would you even say that? I’m a nice guy. I love Indian people – more especially because I’m one myself – and the last thing I want is for them to be crucified on the upside down Cross of Nationa-fucking-ism.

    Tagore may have been one of the most inflated windbags of all time, but he got one thing right- Nationalism is a fucking disease, not an infantile disease which grants an adult immunity, but an infantilizing disease.

    The whole point about India is that it don’t exist – save as shithole – the World is a shithole – that’s why India is the opposite of chauvinistic nationalism, it is the opposite of building a Paradise on Earth which turns out to be an Inferno. India – whose democratically elected politicians have constrained it to be a fractal shithole such that every corner of it will remind one that not by Race are we saved, not by Nation, not by us guys massacring them guys, not by talking shit – no, we are saved by Death alone – our death – the vast weapon dealing which it is our day labor to construct and our ultimate dream to wield against this waking.

    You write well.

    The canker in the rose arises, it appears, from High School Journalism.

    This is not to say that your dismissal of me as an Indian Nationalist nutjob was entirely idle or ill founded. Yet, it cuts me to the quick.

    Granted, I’m ignorant enough for the charge to stick – Dominica, Dominican Republic is a case in point – and I also did actually fail an IQ test (got less than 100 – whereas the cut off was 120 for some posh school Dad wanted to pack me off to) – but still…
    My point is only that I.Q, like physical strength, sexual attractiveness, and so on are real in that they refer to objective reality, but not really real in that that is a slice of objective reality which is unprofitable for the self, whereas there are other intersubjective things – lovability, the quality of being simpatico, wisdom- which ain’t an avenue to objectification and the slave market.

  4. I only skimmed this as I’ve got one foot out of the door to go visit a friend. I’ll read in more depth later.

    “I do not know to what extent early Black maturation (Blacks do mature earlier, and this has a genetic basis) explains the strange phenomenon of high Black IQ’s in small children which rapidly decline into adulthood.”

    This is why I do not accept this as evidence of IQ gains for Black adults. This is a familiar pattern; their IQ scores will almost certainly go down as they grow up.

    Note that I’m completely opposed to mistreatment of Black people. If it is true that they have, on average, lower general intelligence, this hardly justifies a macho law and order policy regarding Black crime. To the contrary, it indicates that they are much like children and young teens in grown-up bodies. Although real crime obviously cannot be tolerated, the empirical and scientific facts indicate that most Blacks have greatly diminished capacity and therefore should be cut a great deal of slack.

    1. The tests are comparing the IQ of present black children to the tests taken regarding black children in the past. I’m sure when they say that black adults have an increasing IQ they compare the past IQ tests to present IQ tests within the same age group.

  5. There is probably something environmentally happening with blacks as they age that is decreasing the IQ. I’m black and I tend to score from about 125-135 on IQ test, 24/30 on Mensa workout (if that means anything) and I actually do things with my life that confirm this score like being the best student in my college level Calculus class, even though Calc is stupid easy and having around a 3.8 at the end of my first year of college, if that means anything. I’m majoring in the hard sciences btw and I’m usually one of the best in my classes. Now a weird environmental thing actually happened with me…I saw myself as white rather than black all my life. I’m dark skinned so this probably sounds weird. As far as the hereditarian idea goes I live with really really stupid parents that fail at everything and are absolutely incompetent…but I don’t see them as my parents…odd but true. I feel like people, blacks, are simply regressing towards the mean black IQ for social reasons rather than genetic reasons. Also, I don’t have any evidence that I was testing higher at any other ages and I was a terrible student in elementary school and middle school. It wasn’t until I decided to do well and study that I improved my grades and stuff…of course grades might not have necessarily been correlated with my intelligence even if I had bad ones. Though I do remember in third grade that I had a difficult time learning long division…if that means anything. Hmm…I doubt that this has much to do with genetics considering that similar IQ’s are seen in countries other than black ones and amongst homogenous ethnic groups. I kinda see blacks as a caste group in America and that could be diminishing their intelligence; if you do some research you’ll find that the lowest members of caste have diminished intelligence but that shifts when they immigrate somewhere else. And immigrants from underdeveloped countries tend to have lower IQ’s…I read something Thomas Sowell wrote about the Irish and Italians having low IQ’s when they came to America, considering their behavior here I wouldn’t doubt it. Furthermore, I’ve always wondered why people focus on the black IQ versus the Indian IQ or the Latino IQ or the Nepalese IQ or Burakumin IQ…I’ve always imagined that people cared so much because it fit in with what folks were already thinking or wanted to think while blacks were slaves, and it fits in with people’s view of Africa as wild and primitive lol…people actually think like this so it’s really funny to me. It would be interesting if blacks turned out to actually have a higher IQ than whites in the end. Then I’m sure racist blacks will argue that Neanderthal DNA in whites explains the differences between whites and blacks and then all this nonsense will continue…oh well 🙂

    1. …also, Detroit is failing because of socialist policies that have never worked and will never work. Even those “smart” Chinese lived in a relatively failed state because of socialism, and North Korea is a failed state because of socialism…maybe one day people will finally realize that Karl Marx, whilst well intentioned and Jewish, was absolutely wrong about how humans think.

      1. So I take it Socialism = Communism to you?
        I don’t know about others but Socialism to me = safety net and public services.

        1. They are socialist but, as I’m sure you know, in the west, the wealth generation is from the productive, capitalist part of the economy. If we had a fully socialist system, the productive part of the economy would be owned socially too, by the government (ie state socialism) or perhaps by cooperatives. So you are right that they are socialist elements of our system, but we don’t have a fully socialist system.
          Note that state socialism could be dictatorial, like in the soviet union, or democratic and it should be democratic for a full realization of the true principles of socialism. Then the means of production are more truly publicly or socially owned and could be democratically run for the benefit of all.

        2. and when I say democratically run, that could be done to varying degrees, of course. It could simply mean democratically run from the national level, ie production subject to national decision making and within the remit of national politics, or there could be some form of democracy within ‘corporations’.

      2. IQ gains mean little without gains in science, economics, and other quality of life factors. Ireland has an IQ of 96 and is a paradise compared to Kenya. Most of these “IQ gains” reference in the article, if they are real, serve only to discredit the idea that IQ test measure intelligence or anything else of value.

        1. No, the gains are real. But Kenyans still have quite low IQ’s. The gains are said to be “not on g,” or not on the General Intelligence factor in IQ tests, leading some to all them “useless gains.”

    2. IQ tests have a credibility problem simply because of the Flynn effect. No way we are significantly smarter than people of 1945. IQ is supposed to predict achievement in real life. The transformation of Japan from a feudal to industrial society is more impressive than anything the Japanese have done recently.

      Also there is an interesting finding on archiac humans in Africa.

      1. Indeed we are significantly smarter in certain ways. Most of the gains have been on Raven’s which measures visuospatial intelligence. It is thought that the complexity of modern life is leading to these gains. Increased nutrition is also a factor. The gains mirror rises in height. In addition, gains measure increased scientific thinking. So, it depends on what you are measuring. But we do indeed score 15 points higher than we did in 1945. Cultural revolutions don’t necessarily mirror IQ gains. Most of the time people are plenty smart enough already.

  6. I took Raven’s progressive matrices standard test a few weeks ago and got 57 out of 60. I’m not sure what IQ that equates to though. I think it said 134. I genuinely find it hard to believe that this is exceptional. I feel like people ought to be able to do better or they could if they were more motivated to focus on it or something. Most of the questions were not that difficult, I thought. I have to admit though that there were a couple on the last page I just couldn’t find any pattern in at all, as hard as I tried. I marvel at the people who can and I don’t feel jealous. I’m just glad there are such people in the world.

  7. I don’t think there has been a gain in intelligence among the blacks.
    However, I do believe that as Africa has gained up on GDP per capita, literacy rates have increased. And increasing literacy increases your chances on doing well on IQ tests.
    It was complete meaningless to do IQ tests on Africa in 1950s when majority population was illiterate. If someone hasn’t used a pen and paper in his entire life, how can you expect him to score at par with a Maths student in another nation.
    Real IQ of African nations will be evident in 2030. when especially the sub saharan africa will be free of under-nourishment.

  8. But low IQ does tend to follow crime. I’m not exactly impressed with a few points jump in 30 years and then crime increases! Is that supposed to be a good thing?

  9. Full disclosure,

    I reject the idea that intelligence is genetically determined because I belong to a religion that teaches that we all had a pre-mortal existence where we engaged in intellectual, often highly complex thought and differences in intelligence level already existed. We had no genes there or any biological components, but were purely metaphysical beings. Ergo intelligence is all about metaphysical influences not biology.

    Abraham 3:
    19 “And the Lord said unto me: These two facts do exist, that there are two spirits, one being more intelligent than the other; there shall be another more intelligent than they; I am the Lord thy God, I am amore intelligent than they all.”

  10. IQ, race, and history are verifiable facts that require a man’s logic.

    Religion is womanly comfort. Women are better at the emotional. Leave the nunnery to them and let men discuss what they are sure is true.

    1. “IQ, Race, and History are verifiable facts”

      Really? And yet there is a great deal of disagreement on all of these.

      For example, who won the Battle of Kadesh? Many historians think the Hittites won, and the Egyptian Pharaoh had to flee the battle, but the Egyptian claimed a great victory and built a monument to their alleged victory.

  11. Opinion of 19th century Southerner based on unscientific observation.

    “The passage from childhood to adult age brings in the Negro a more marked and important change in the tone of the mind than it does in the White. In youth, the Black children are surprisingly quick — their quickness can be appreciated only by those who have taught them; but in the pure Blacks, with the maturing of the body, the animal nature generally settles down like a cloud on that promise.”

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