Blacks Close the Black-White IQ Gap

Repost from the old site: There is some pretty exciting news coming out of the race-IQ studies lately, especially a new study by Flynn and Dickens (F & D henceforth) that seems to show that younger Blacks are closing the ominous Black-White IQ gap. Traditionally, this gap has been about 15 points or so. But that does not necessarily mean that Blacks are dumb; instead, it means that on average they are less intelligent than Whites. This is on the type of intelligence that is measured on IQ tests, that does seem to be correlated with many things, including life success. The various attacks against IQ tests have pretty much all been shown to be worthless, and no test has yet been made in which the typical racial delineation is not present. Culture-fair tests score about the same as culture-loaded tests. IQ is indeed a reliable metric of pure brainpower, even as measured by such things as reaction time. On the other hand, it is not necessarily correlated with social skills, certain subtypes of intelligence (Blacks outscore all races on verbal memory – think rappers), musical or artistic skills, “common sense”, “street skills”, etc. As I noted in another post, the Flynn Effect has shown that IQ’s have been rising in the West, and even in some parts of the 3rd World, for about 50 years now. There is no way that genes operate that fast in the human race in the way it is currently structured. So the notion that IQ is all or almost all genetic can be safely tossed aside – otherwise we would not be seeing this huge rise in IQ scores. All IQ’s in the West have been going up about 3 points per decade from the early 1940’s to the early 1990’s at least. So that means that if White IQ’s had stayed the same during that period, Blacks and Whites would currently be tied for IQ. Since Black IQ’s have risen 15 points over the past 60 years, it becomes increasingly difficult to call Blacks “stupid”. Furthermore, an 85 score (the Black average) now is a full 15 points higher than an 85 score 60 years ago. F & D’s paper discusses various reasons why IQ’s might be rising. What does the F & D’s paper mean? It means that even while both Black and White IQ’s have been rising, Black IQ’s have been rising faster than White IQ’s. The main difference in F & D’s work and that of their detractors is that F & D only used standardized samples, which have become more available and of better quality in recent years. Even including the nonstandardized results that they excluded yields a Black score of about 90.5, which is about what they found in the standardized tests. Bottom line, F & D found that young Blacks gained 5-6 IQ points over young Whites during the last 30 years. Even including less quality tests gives the same result. Black-White gaps differ by age for unknown reasons. According to F & D, Black IQ is 98.4 at age 4, 92.5 at age 12, 92.4 at age 14, 90.0 at age 18 and 86.4 for 24 yr olds. By age 24, the familiar 15 t gap is back with us. F & D’s paper has been criticized by J. Philippe Rushton and Arthur Jensen (R & J henceforth), two authors who have long argued that the gap is immutable. Both have taken money from The Pioneer Fund, which is an openly racist eugenics organization founded by a US Nazi sympathizer. Not that that matters. We need to look at their science. Even R & J argue that Blacks have closed the gap by 3.44 points, so I am not sure what they are arguing with the authors about. In a response to R & J, the authors use Jensen’s own data to point out that R & J’s own data shows a Black rise of 5.25 IQ points for young Blacks. They also note why they did not use several tests, an argument that has been used to say that the authors cherry-picked their results. The 1983 K-ABC data was rejected due to too great a variance in the scores. The original author of that notion was none other than Jensen himself. The authors excluded Woodcock-Johnson results; they quote an expert saying that the sample was not representative of the US population, and the subsample even more nonrandom. The authors analyze R & J’s rejoinder to the paper and find that R & J found an IQ of 89.88 for Black 15 yr olds. This is even higher that what the authors themselves found. It is hard to understand what R & J are arguing about, as their data tends to confirm and not disconfirm the authors’ paper. Bottom line: Black children have gained 5-6 IQ’s over Whites in the Black-White gap over a 30 yr period. The 15 pt Black White IQ gap is neither fact nor immutable. Nevertheless, by adulthood, Blacks have lost all of their gains and have reverted to the 15 pt gap again. Black adults are not maintaining the gains that Black children made. There are many reasons why this might be so. Perhaps Black children are being challenged more and this is stimulating their IQ’s. As they leave school, many fall into an anti-intellectual Black culture that derides education and learning. Hence, their IQ drops. But Black children, at least, are closing the gap, and Blacks of all ages are experiencing dramatic IQ gains. For a ferocious look at the angry White nationalist community and its rage towards Blacks and Asians, see this American Renaissance paper. AmRen is, frankly, an openly racist White Nationalist publication, but they are pretty polite about it. Curiously, AmRen is hardly anti-Semitic at all. Perhaps this is due to the influence of White Nationalist Jared Taylor. Taylor takes the perfectly reasonable line that Jews are White. Well, of course they are. What other major race could they possibly fall into? Consider that there are 12 major races: White, Black, Asian, Amerindian, East Indian, Polynesian, Melanesian, Micronesian, Negrito, Hottentot, Pygmy and Aborigine. Now exactly where do we put Jews? They can only go into White. Some White Nationalist Jews show up in the comments now and again, and they are welcomed with open arms. I am not a fan of White Nationalism, but promoting the notion that Jews are White seems reasonable enough. Look for the comments at the end for the ferocity and naked racism mentioned above. The comments of the parole officer (the first comment) commenting about how almost all of his Black criminals scored below 80, however, are most interesting. It underscores what we said on this blog earlier, that those scoring at the lowest end of the IQ chart cause the most problems, including crime, as a group. The superb anthropology blog Dienekes notes that the Black White gap in the US cannot possibly be totally genetic. This is because US Blacks score 50 Hopefully, in this post, and in F & D’s paper and response to R & J linked above, we have demolished the rejoinders of “Uncomfortable Truth” in the comments on Dienekes’ blog. I print them here so you can see what he is complaining about. Evaluate for yourself whether or not we have effectively dealt with his complaints:

Well, the paper that egalitarians are hoping will save them has been thoroughly debunked by now. They cherry picked their data.On the whole, the IQ gap remains and American blacks still find themselves with an average IQ of 90. To claim a 4- to 7-point gain for Blacks, Dickens and Flynn chose three independent tests showing medium gains (the Wechsler, Stanford-Binet, and Armed Forces qualification tests)and relegated to their Appendix B four or more tests showing lesser gains. They excluded the Wonderlic Personnel Test, which they acknowledge showed a gain of only 2.4 points for Blacks between 1970 and 2001. (Dickens and Flynn suggest that more ‘‘high quality’’ Whites than Blacks had taken the test.) They excluded the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), which Murray (2005) described as showing a loss of 1 IQ point for Blacks between 1983 and 2004. (Dickens and Flynn say the data contained an inflated standard deviation.) They excluded the very g-loaded Woodcock-Johnson test, which Murray (2005; whom they cite) described as showing the conventional gap of 1.05 standard deviations for the third (2001) standardization sample. (Dickens and Flynn say the Blacks were an unrepresentative “subsubsample.”) They also excluded the Differential Ability Scale, which in Lynn’s (1996) analysis (which they cite) showed a maximum gain of 1.83 IQ points for Blacks between 1972 and 1986. (Dickens and Flynn say the sample lacked “quality.”) To be compelling, however, researchers must take the totality of available evidence into account. A strong adherence to an egalitarian dream made them unwilling to.

See the post above for arguments against Uncomfortable Truth’s comments. The K-ABC test has been rejected by none other than Jensen himself. The Woodcock-Johnson sample has also been rejected by a top expert in the field as unrepresentative of the US population and the subsample used was even less representative. As we can see above, using R & J’s own figures, F & J arrived at a recent IQ of about 90 for 15 yr old Blacks. This alone should effectively deal with Uncomfortable Truth’s argument above. The always interesting but frustrating and frankly somewhat racist and sexist Steve Sailer agrees with this post that Blacks have gained 5-6 IQ points on Whites, but also backs up my notion that as Blacks age, they are not being challenged enough intellectually. He blames rap culture. I’ll stay quiet on that one. Steve is a good writer and I read his site often; many times, he makes some excellent points. But he makes his biases quite clear – he feels that males are superior to females and that Whites are superior to Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, etc. And he is, sadly, quite happy to report studies which back up these notions, while I feel pained, as it is the last thing in the world that I want to believe.

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56 thoughts on “Blacks Close the Black-White IQ Gap”

  1. “F & D’s paper has been criticized by J. Philippe Rushton and Arthur Jensen (R & J henceforth), two authors who have long argued that the gap is immutable…”
    Rushton and Jensen argue that the gap is 20-50% environmental. And unlike Flynn, who is an avowed socialist, Jensen is apolitical. I would say that Flynn’s self proclaimed sociopolitical agenda is more of an ethnical concern (in the sense of research ethics) than the character of Jensen’s funders.
    As for this:
    “Black-White gaps differ by age for unknown reasons. According to F & D, Black IQ is 98.4 at age 4, 92.5 at age 12, 92.4 at age 14, 90.0 at age 18 and 86.4 for 24 yr olds. By age 24, the familiar 15 t gap is back with us.
    This is an interesting point. It can go either way.
    We know that the within population heritablity (h^2) of IQ increases with age. If the increase is linear, h^2 would increase 4% from age 0-20 (or, conversely, environmental influences would decrease 4% with age). This roughly matches the know data — i.e. at 7 IQ is 30% h^2, while at 17 it is 70% h^2. The point here is that the younger you are, the more your IQ reflects your environment.
    So if the between population difference functioned in the same manner, one interpretation would be the at 24 years old African-Americans reflect more of their genetic IQ. The increase, as such, primarily would be due to Black kids being raised — basically — more and more by white society (early intervention, preschool etc). Alternatively, it could reflect a sustainable increase.

  2. ^^^No, the reason the black IQ is shrinking on average over time is becuase many fall back in to the low educational enriching environment. It has nothing to do with the true black IQ being seen. If a Black kid has an IQ of 98.5 at a young age, it will stay that way regardless, unless of course they stop using their brains and go in to trouble. This is true for any race.

    1. “No, the reason the black IQ is shrinking on average over time is becuase many fall back in to the low educational enriching environment. ”
      So what do you think of dipshit america in general?

    2. The Minnesota Inter Racial Adoption study found that White parents that adopted asian and african children did Not Change the Average IQ…The East Asian children scored 105 Average and the Black children scored 75 Average, regardless of the best efforts of the White parents and the educations provided in the State of Mn.

    3. the Minn. Adoption Study of white parents that adopted east asian and african children did Not alter the Average IQ of either group. The E.A =105 and the A. = 75, regardless of nurturing…

  3. Why do some people keep saying the gap is closing, let alone closed, when such “gains” have such a well established record of basically disappearing by adulthood?

  4. I believe thet this information holds no relevance to capability of all people(race is only physical in my eyes). This does not prove white superiority or black inferiority. I believe the the intellect of a man depends on where he grew up and the education he can afford. The majority of blacks attend poor, underserved educational facilities. Many whites are educated in private schools or well-served schools. I feel that all man has the capability of being intelligent and surpassing the intellect of the average man. Telling kids their race is genetically “dumb” discourages them and causes them to settle when their potential is far from being reached.

  5. Yes! We are different in physical appearance..Whites have fragile sun protection, asians and blacks = excellent protection. Black muscle contraction is significantly faster than Whites or Asians. So much so, that Blacks win most leg race’s and jump higher..White’s and Asians have 20% less Testosterone than Blacks, begin sex at a latter age and breed slower than Blacks. Blacks bussed to the best White schools in America during 30 years hardly changed black educational outcome. Instead of lying to the nation’s kids “You can be and do whatever you want in America!”, no system has ever been established to direct kids at 9th grade towards specialized training, based on their aptitude tests as Switzerland does..Instead, kids (Blacks especially) wander into their future’s and many resort to crime when they fail to become skilled and employed. The blanket idea “We are all the same” is Untrue. The IQ levels of Asians is 10% better than Whites as it has always been. Maybe Whites have poor educational opportunities as compared to Korea or Viet Nam??? Blacks in Africa are mentally handicapped (IQ 65-75) and this includes the best, well fed blacks. Instead of establishing handicapped school programs as did the USA, to help low IQ kids lead functional lives, the African’s continue to live in filthy squalor and die young, as would be expected WITHOUT REMEDIAL EDUCATION ASSISTANCE. The story “The King That Wore No Clothes, is paraded through the halls of education whenever IQ and Race is a topic of discussion. It is sadly humorous…

  6. There are many white people i’ve seen in the american deep south who are massively stupid and live in squalid conditions. How can this be when whites had at the foundation of america had all the leverage. This can only be explained by low IQ so basically you can get stupid people from all races.

    1. Of course there are stupid white people–there are stupid people and geniuses of all races. We are looking at AVERAGE IQ here.

    2. Sure there are stupid whites… That is the reason we have Special Education, to assist the Mentally Handicapped. The “Average” IQ of Whites = 100. That means most Whites range in the area of 100 just like the “Average IQ of Africans = 75. Most Africans range in this area…

  7. I know but what group of black people in the USA and in Africa did the researchers actually test. Where they extremely poor blacks or blacks from all class backgrounds. These things can make a difference if you haven’t noticed.

    1. In the USA, ALL Citizens are IQ Tested. This includes rich and poor. In the state of California, IQ testing of ALL Blacks was suspended because the majority (including the Not Poor) consistantly tested at IQ 85. Below 90 is considered Below Average Intelligence. As I have already said: The USA has no aptitude test at grade 8 to direct the student towards a training program that will help him become skilled and successful. Instead, we lie and tell all the students “In the USA, you can be or do whatever your heart desires”!!! The truth is not everyone can become an engineer but many can be trained to work in the construction trade and earn a decent living with a future instead of living on the streets with a gun…

      1. “In the state of California, IQ testing of ALL Blacks was suspended because the majority (including the Not Poor) consistantly tested at IQ 85. ”
        Unbelievable. I had to look it up before I would believe it.

        1. I was reacting to the suspension of IQ testing, not the IQ scores themselves. I assume Paul meant that the scores clustered near 85, the average, which would make sense.
          I was unable to find the specific IQ scores for California students. The Larry P. v. Riles case, which led to the suspension of IQ testing, includes the following:
          “… black children have been significantly overrepresented in E.M.R. classes. For example, in 1968-69, black children were about 9% of the state school population, yet accounted for 27% of the E.M.R. [Educable Mentally Retarded] population.
          On the average, black children score fifteen points, or one standard deviation, below white children on standardized intelligence tests. Thus, utilizing the premoratorium criteria used by California for E.M.R. placement, ‘approximately two percent of the total population fall below the two standard deviation cut-off, while about 15 percent of black children fall below that level.’”
          I assume the reference to average scores being 15 points apart means an 85 average for black students versus 100 for whites. The court concluded that the IQ tests were racist because they were developed for and with white students. (Since then several black and mixed-race families have sued because they do want their kids tested.)
          Scroll down and see Figure 1 on this site (note—I don’t know where they got their numbers from and don’t vouch for them, OK? But this basically shows how the different bell curves look, particularly in terms of numbers of mentally-challenged students).

          Here’s Larry P. v. Riles:

        2. Amy, Thanks for your homework, I will enjoy the articles! The Average IQ of Whites = 100 (the majority float towards this point, with less on the bottom IQ range and less in the top IQ range). The US educational system considers the range of 90-100 = normal IQ. Below 90 = below average IQ, below 80 slightly Mentally Retarded. Normal Black IQ range = 75 to 85. You can expect 27% of Blacks will benefit from Special Education. Without it, they would completely waste their educational experience and wind up in prison since the educational system Never Provided them with Skilled Training. Black leaders don’t give a damn about improving Black Plight but instead, (like White leaders) focus on drum beating to attract more $ to their personal bank books. Their “drum beat” Is Racial Hate, HA!

        3. Most articles/blogs/etc. that tout these sorts of figures don’t include their sources (and many of them probably got their figures second-hand from another site that did the same thing). This sort of sloppiness is so pernicious nowadays because of the tendency for [mis-]information to “go viral.”
          “Figures often beguile me, particularly when I have the arranging of them myself; in which case the remark attributed to Disraeli would often apply with justice and force: ‘There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.'” –Mark Twain

      2. The majority of Blacks in California consistently tested at IQ 85? What does this statement mean?

        1. I think it means the top of the bell curve–haven’t found specific numbers for California and I have to get off the computer, so the rest of you have at it. 🙂
          The IQ testing was challenged as racist in California in part because more black kids were being placed in Special Ed.

        2. “Average IQ = “Most folks” : The Normal East Asian IQ range = 100-110. White Normal IQ = 90-100. USA Black Normal IQ = 75-85, African Normal IQ = 65-75. The differences are significant. Colder climates cause more mental locomotion: stay warm, invent ways to stay alive in a colder climate. Hot climate = less effort to survive, and slower mental effort. Over several hundred thousand years, humans migrated, brain size changed and intelligence grew. In 30,000 years (if humans survive), a much higher IQ correlated with a dampening of Greed and Anger levels will allow humans to lead a happier, healthier and a more peaceful life! We are Not There Yet!!!!!!!!!

      3. “The truth is not everyone can become an engineer but many can be trained to work in the construction trade and earn a decent living with a future instead of living on the streets with a gun…”
        Well tell that to the those who want to import illegal aliens into the country to do manual jobs that used to pay a living wage.

        1. Hell Yes I agree! In San Diego, skilled construction labor moved away because they were replaced by Mexican tile setters, electricians, carpenters, and even plumbers that were happy to receive Minimum Wage Under The Table. The skilled landscapers that earned $16/hour were left to compete with Mexicans that charged Minimum Wage for the same work! As bizarre as it sounds, the American people have no control over foreign policy. Instead, the Washington Elite joins hands with an Open Europe Policy in which the borders have been demolished.

      4. The “majority” tested at 85? Are you sure? That is a suspiciously small standard deviation.

        1. It is “1” deviation point. Negro Africans score “2” dp. The difference cannot be compared racially since U.S. Blacks carry 20% White DNA and most Black Africans are Black unlike their USA counterparts…The US Army has a policy of enlisting folks that score 15 points lower on the entry aptitude test compared to the Navy or Air Force. This is the reason why the Army has more Blacks than the other armed forces..These Black military men are taught by the Army, become skilled, and render honorable service to the USA. Hats off to them!

  8. What this means is, “The Average IQ of the majority of Blacks = 85” in California and the whole USA except for “Jesse Jackson’s Chicago where Blacks Average 100”, like the Whites of the USA and Europe average…

    1. As ignorant and stupid as most American Blacks are – very much INCLUDING Chicago (LOL!) the ones in California, particularly Oakland and throughout the Bay Area, are an especially diminished breed. It would be kind to call them “sub-morons”.

  9. Paul, normal Black IQ range is probably 70-100 or 80-90 , something like that. Below 80 is not mildly mentally retarded. There is a category called borderline intelligence, but I don’t think it starts at 80, maybe at 75.

    1. Bob, Thank you for your positive optimism. Yes, all people are the same, and have the same intelligence as everyone else. It is estimated that of 30 million black americans, there are 28,000 that have an IQ of 130 or above. Yes, there are many bright Blacks in the USA…

    2. In Calif schools, an IQ below 80 attends Special ED. for the handicapped (at least 30 years ago they did). It improves their ability to live decent lives and is not punishment. Forest Gump’s mama “convinced the principal!!!!!” that her boy should attend Regular classes instead of Special Ed even tho Forest scored Below 80. This is a classic example of mentally challenged folks becoming an economic powerhouse, in spite of their impairment. Yes, a minority of impaired can overcome their disability, even in the real world.

  10. Wrong, wrong, wrong Paul.
    Average EA IQ – 100-110
    Average White IQ – 95-105
    Average Black IQ – 80-90
    Average African IQ – 65-75
    Blacks have 15% White genes. That is not sufficient to account for their 87 IQ. The White genes should only push the IQ to 72 or so. Plus, US Black IQ has risen dramatically in 100 years, and Black head size has changed to become more progressive. Plus, blacks have much larger heads than they did 100 yrs ago.

    1. Bobby, your source says “15% White genes”, however, my sources said “20% White DNA”… I do not know about the skull size of blacks getting any larger over 100 years, however, I do know there are anatomical differences between black and other race’s skulls… Black skulls are more narrow, have more osteoblasts which produces a thicker skull, such that Black boxers have won most major fights, even today.. I know there have been 24 MRI studies of brain mass size comparing Asians, Whites and Blacks. The MRI studies Are Consistant and they demonstrate: Asians have 17.5 cubic centimeters More brain mass than Blacks of the same height, weight and body structure. Whites did Not score as well as the asians ,and they had an Average of 15 cubic centimeters More brain mass than Blacks of the same height, size and body structure. I appreciate your rapid reply, Bob!

      1. I’ve mentioned in another post about this senegalese man who came to my college. He had an MRI scan and showed us the result and found that it was on a par with (supposedly) with the mass of the white average. What does this tell you then. He was massively dark skinned

      2. This correlation of head size and IQ has been discussed to death and debunked on this site already. Yawn…

        1. Davey your article’s conclusion is that “The results showed a clear link between head size and loss of memory and cognitive ability in later life. ”
          It didn’t correlate head size with IQ, it suggested that larger heads mean LESS DECLINE in cognitive ability*as people age*. Not the same thing.

  11. 1 man’s brain scan does not supplant large population samples used in the MRI studies. I agree, there Are African Blacks that have IQ’s above 70 or 80 or 90 or 100 and may have skull sizes equal to asians or whites…Yes that is true

  12. Puerto Ricans the majority of peurto ricans are white. Look at the recent census of peurto rico and you’ll see that about 80% are white. Yet peurto rico has the lowest iq anywere thats american territory. This disproves the higher white IQ claims since there isn’t sufficient or no black genes at all in white peurto ricans.

    1. It is untrue that most Puerto Ricans are White. They have a high Mulatto population and Black population. They can be seen on the streets of the USA. The Cuban IQ studies are dubious and probably pumped up by the regime to show the glitter of a prosperous communist state. I don’t believe their facts or Jesse Jackson’s Chicago IQ Average of 100 either.

      1. I was watching Andrew Zimmern’s Bizarre Food show on Travel Channel when he went to Puerto Rico. I was actually surprised at how many Puerto Rican’s are white.

      2. Many (not all) of the Puerto Ricans I’ve met (including both sides of the family at a large wedding I attended about a decade ago) look white–dark hair and eyes, but pale skin, Caucasian features.

  13. Sure, these sound like good causes for a diminished IQ. Divorce or lack of sleep are also good reasons for kids performing poorly. Nevertheless, there are “average IQ ranges” for each major racial group that consistently repeat themselves regardless of which continent the test was rendered…each race will test out the same…

    1. Paul, if socioeconomic aspects and culture are met, there would be no IQ gap. An American Indian going to live in Britain would have a normal IQ of 100, since he was selective, and back home his people could have lower IQ’s because of environment. Environment and culture count. Some Mestizo groups can have an IQ in the 100 range in certain countries, because they were selective, yet their people back home suffer from lower IQ’s because they were living in a bad environment.

  14. Hey Davey, if you don’t like all the BF posts, why don’t you just fuckin take off, man? It’s not like we need your traffic or anything. Traffic is going through the roof lately, in spite of BF posts, for whatever reason.

  15. The hydroencephalic head, altho enormous when compared to random samplings, can be improved by using a stent.

  16. I hate that argument that truth about the IQ gap ‘discourages’ anyone. I can’t find the quote, but I think Konrad Lorenz said something like: We’ve tried everything else — let’s give the truth a try. Anyhow, I’m White, and I know very well that my race is ‘dumb’ compared to East Asians, and it doesn’t discourage me a bit. If a person doesn’t realize that the average IQ of his group doesn’t effect his own IQ, any discouragement he might feel is probably irrelevant.

    1. Cartoon, Hey Thank You for being Intuitive! Ya… being White or Black does not tie you to the Average IQ of the Race because the Individual IQ is based on Yourself and any personal efforts made on your behalf, period. I address each person as an individual and not as a race.

  17. The fatal flaw in this IQ egalitarianism is that there isn’t a single psychology textbook that teaches this. I have one from 2012, Exploring Psychology by David Myers. It specifically states that the IQ gap is not closing and that the Flynn Effect hasn’t been seen in cohorts born since about 1980. The 15 point black/white IQ gap remains.
    Posting off the cuff opinions in blogs doesn’t erase scientific consensus.
    Perhaps you need to learn to deal with proven scientific fact rather than do all this denialism and hand-wringing? Your motivation is ideological and it isn’t translating well into scientific fact, and unfortunately yet predictably, science is the one falling by the way side here.

    1. The paper references very specifically a scientific study done by Flynn and Jenkins that proves that the gap is closing in younger Blacks if not in older Blacks. That paper is controversial and I am not sure if its findings are accepted universally, but almost nothing is accepted universally in this debate anyway in the field of psychology. I believe the paper is correct, and I am going to say so. Further, Flynn is an acquaintance of mine.
      Also I am banning you for being a jackass. Comments rule violation: Hostile tone.

  18. Lindsay,
    What’s up man?
    I just wanted to know why you happen to be so smart, I mean, do you have an IQ above 160 ?
    If not, I guess you’re in the 130-150 range.
    By the way, have you ever heard about Dr. Reuven Feuerstein’s theory of cognitive structural modifiability?
    I am trying to become as smart as possible by means of intellectual activity, what would be your advice in order to be really intelligent. I took an official IQ test and I got 125, I understand it’s not that bad; however, I really want to be genius like.
    Help me out please.

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