I put separate language <90
Iberian - Oral Asturian - Spanish: 80 Spanish - Portuguese: 54 Galician - Portuguese: 85 Italian - Oral Venetian - Venetian*: 92 German - Oral German - Texas German 95 German - Swabian: 40 German - Badish: 40 German - Kolsch (Ripaurian): 40 German - Bavarian: 40 German - Moselle Franconian: 40 German - Upper Saxon: 40 German - Luxembourgish: 40 German - Hessian: 40 German - Low German: 40 German - Alsatian: 40 Pennsylvania German - Hutterite: 70 Mennonite - Hutterite: 50 Bavarian - Bavarian***: 50 Kirchröadsj - Hommersch** 20 Dutch - Oral Dutch - Groningen: 90.5 English - Oral US English - Glascow Scots: 53 US English - Edinburgh Scots: 32 US English - Scots (average): 42.5 Scandinavian - Oral Norwegian - Danish: 71 Norwegian - Swedish: 68 Swedish - Danish: 33 Scandinavian - Written Norwegian - Danish: 91.5 Norwegian - Swedish: 87.5 Swedish - Danish: 69
*Maximum distance between any two Venetian dialects. **Ripaurian lects at opposite ends of the Ripaurian dialect chain. ** Central Austrian Bavarian vs. Viennese Bavarian. Commentary: Clearly, Asturian and Spanish are separate languages, and so are Galician and Portuguese. These two are rather controversial, with Spanish speakers claiming Asturian as a Spanish dialect and Portuguese speakers claiming Galician as a Portuguese dialect. The much-vaunted mutual intelligibility between Spanish and Portuguese leaves much to be desired. Spanish speakers say that Italian is much lower than Portuguese. I figure 20-30 Venetian is clearly a single language. All of the German lects listed above are separate languages except for Texas German, which is just a dialect of German. Groningen is just barely a dialect of Dutch, but Groningen speakers want to see themselves as speakers of a separate language, so the world is going alone. Here, sociolinguistics trumps intelligibility testing. Scots is clearly a separate language from English. There is no debate about that anymore from a scientific point of view. It’s simply not intelligible with US English, period. The much-discussed mutual intelligibility between the Scandinavian languages leaves much to be desired, though between Norwegian and the rest, it is higher than, say, Portuguese and Spanish. Between Danish and the rest and Swedish and the rest, it is lower than between Spanish and Portuguese. Intelligibility between Swedish and Danish is ridiculously low. It’s incredible that people discuss the mutual intelligibility of these two languages. Swedish and Norwegian speakers get subtitles on Danish TV. If they are so intelligible, what’s with the subtitles? Scandinavian speakers often resort to English to speak to each other. If they are so intelligible, why resort to English? Based on the data, it is completely untrue to say that Danish, Swedish and Norwegian are mutually intelligible, though Norwegians can generally easily understand the other Scandinavian languages if they are written.
- Fig. A. An understanding of the spoken languageNorwegians understand 88 Danes understand 69 Norwegian and Swedish have 68 Norwegian and Danish have 71 Norwegian has combined 69 Swedish and Norwegian have 68 Swedish and Danish have 33 Swedish has 48 Danish has 33 Danish has 68 Danish has 50 Fig. B. An understanding of the written language Norwegians understand 89 Swedes understand 86 Danes understand 89 Norwegian and Swedish have 87.5 Norwegian and Danish have 91.5 Swedish and Danish have 69 Norwegian and Swedish have 89 Norwegian and Danish have 93 Norwegian has combined 91.5 Swedish and Norwegian have 86 Swedish and Danish have 69 Swedish has 77.5 Danish has 69 Danish has 89 Danish has 79
- Kilborn, Emily SJE. The Politics of Language in Europe. Case Studies in Scots, Occitan, Moldovan, & Verbose‐Croatian. European Studies. Middlebury College.
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